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Kwanini tuendelee kukaa na giza wakati tatizo la umeme linaweza kutatuliwa?

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Siasa' started by Darwin, Jul 3, 2011.

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    Darwin JF-Expert Member

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    1. jatropha in gambia
    December 12, 2010 THE PROMOTION OF GROWING JATROPHA IS GOING WELL Posted by jatrophagambia under 1, Help needed, Press No Comments Over the last weeks so much has happened that I don't know where to start. The exhibition was a big success, there ware so many positive reactions that even our own ambassadors were kind of surprised about it, but also again convinced that they are putting all this energy in a good future for their country. At the exhibition we received an invitation for the 9-days Trade Fair. The EU had a table for the Jatropha project reserved, normal this would costs D 15,000, to be able to promote the growing of Jatropha in Gambia. We were so happy about this. The fair was an even bigger success. The Vice-President stopped at the Jatropha table for more then 10 minutes and this is special knowing that the other stands only had 1 minute of her time. She asked so many questions to Mr. Seedy Jarju (tel: +220.9701062) and Mr. Musa Samura (Tel: + 220.9980795 or 7331307) and she was so interested in the information that she even decided to come back after seeing some of the other stands. Radio and television interviewed our Seedy and Musa and they also promised to follow it up. At first all people are a bit reluctant. They all know the plant and they are all so surprised learning about the benefits and the possibilities it can give for the country. NGO's are interested to support, schools are told to fence their school ground with Tabanane. Many people took seeds home for their own garden etc, etc. Mr. Seesy couldn't stop talking and telling me how happy he was with all the positive feedback. I will post the letter with the report after the GREC exhibition and the Report after the fair here. But also we would like to thank Pierre again for bringing the information to us. Without him this would not all have happened. Thank you Pierre!! The next step is now to have the Jatropha initiative registered as a Charity organisation so they are able to receive sponsoring for the costs for copies, travel expenses, oil press production and the devellopment of cooking stoves etc.

    |2007-12-22 10:13:55 | Reacties (1) | Reageer |


    2. JATROPHA IN AFRICA
    [​IMG] Jatropha curcus is unusual among tree crops. Perhaps its most unusual feature is its modular construction. The dry fruits and seeds will remain on the tree for some time, before falling to the ground, especially under dry conditions. Benefits include but are not limited to: Oil as raw material: Oil has a very high Saponification value and is being extensively used for making soap in some countries. Also, the oil is used as an illuminant as it burns without emitting smoke. Medicinal plant: The latex of Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) contains an alkaloid known as "jatrophine" which is believed to have anti-cancerous properties. Raw material for dye: The bark of Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) yields a dark blue dye which is used for colouring cloth, fishing nets and lines. Soil enrichment: Jatropha curcas (VanaErand or RatanJyot) oil cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium and can be used as organic manure. Feed: Jatropha leaves are used as food for the tusser silkworm. In addition to these benefits, scientists at Perdue University in the U.S. and elsewhere are working in the extraction of usable pharmaceutical derivatives from Jatropha Curcas while others are attempting to grow non-toxic plants (Mexico). Preliminary research indicates Jatropha may display certain Anti-Tumor properties, Anti Malarial properties and research is advancing related to HIV/AIDÒs and immune system response enhancement. There are other levels of use that can be exploited. Direct fermentation of seed cake and pulp delivers an organic fertilizer that has a high potential for export to developed countries. It is in the field of Bio Diesel fuel, however, that Jatropha's properties are the most exciting. At same power output, Jatropha curcas oil specific consumption and efficiencies are higher than those of diesel fuel. Tests conducted show that out of these various vegetable oils including copra, palm, groundnut, cottonseed, rapeseed, soya and sunflower - the lowest exhaust gas emissions were obtained with copra and Jatropha Curcas crude oil. Over 50% of Africa's land has the right climate for growing Jatropha HOW MUCH LAND IN AFRICA IS SUITABLE FOR GROWING JATROPHA? In a survey conducted by Dr. Guy Midgley, Chief Specialist Scientist of the Kirstenbosch Research Center of of the South African National Biodiversity Institute (Cape Town) over 1,080 million hectares land Africa could be termed prime growing regions for Jatropha Curcas on the African continent. A further 580 million hectares could be used making a total of 1,660 million hectares suitable for the growing of Jatropha Curcas. On the map of Africa the dark areas represent prime Jatropha growing regions in Africa. These areas, comprising over 1,080 million hectares, or 10.8 million square kilometers, are ideal because the average annual rainfall exceeds 800 mm, and the minimum temperature of the coldest month is greater than 2 degrees centigrade. The light green areas of the map are areas with average annual rainfall in excess of 300 mm, with the minimum temperature of the coldest month greater than 2 degrees centigrade. These areas, comprising over 580 million hectares, or 5.8 million square kilometers, are also viable regions for growing Jatropha. HOW MUCH REVENUE PER HECTARE CAN JATROPHA GENERATE PER YEAR? Over 50% of Africa's land has the right climate for growing Jatropha Referring to the table, the yield per hectare per year is up to 8.0 tons of Jatropha seed, which contain over 30% oil. At $320 (US$) per ton, this will translate into sales of Jatropha crude oil of $768 per hectare per year. Of potentially equal or greater value is the yield from Jatropha seeds of glycerin. Up to 7% of Jatropha seeds are made up of glycerin, which sells for up to $2,000 per ton. This translates into glycerin sales of up to $1,120 per year per hectare, or total sales of up to $1,888 per year per hectare. Imagine, if only 3% of the land in Africa that is considered viable land to grow Jatropha was actually planted with Jatropha, with a yield of 8 tons per hectare per year and an oil content of 30% some 119 Million tons of Jatropha crude oil would be produced per year. The glycerin content at 7% of the 119 M tons would produce an additional 8.366 M tons. Glycerin is indeed a valuable by product. In terms of annual revenues, if only 3% of the potential Jatropha growing regions in Africa were planted with Jatropha, based on a Jatropha crude oil price of $320 per ton and with glycerin selling at $2000 per ton a total sales value of $55 billion per year would be generated. Processing the crude oil into Bio Diesel would on average in Africa add a further 15% to the sales value. This sales value excludes other byproducts of Jatropha. Most African countries are oil dependent and foreign exchange expenditure would be reduced. Jatropha farming could be an incredible contribution to economic development in Africa. Feasibility however is problematic due to the difficulty sourcing suitable financing. The two main reasons for failures to source funding are: 1) Land in many countries in Africa is not owned but leased. This effectively eliminates land being used as collateral by funders. 2) Start up agriculture projects are generally among the most difficult projects for which to obtain funding. Moreover, financial models show that an assured supply of feed stock is required from a central area to ensure a viable project. Only when this is assured can out growers be considered to supplement the main supply chain. Projects where only marginal land is to be used will be very border line and unlikely to financially succeed. Good yields on marginal land are highly unlikely to be obtained.

    |2007-04-08 20:00:35 | Reageer |


    3. JATROPHA PLANTATION
    [​IMG] JATROPHA PLANTATION Jatropha may be the answer FOR FUTURE FUEL INTRODUCTION Jatropha curcus is a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in marginal/poor soil. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and lives, producing seeds for 50 years. Jatropha the wonder plant produces seeds with an oil content of 37%. The oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. It burns with clear smoke-free flame, tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer, oil contains also insecticide. It is found to be growing in many parts of the country, rugged in nature and can survive with minimum inputs and easy to propagate. Medically it is used for diseases like cancer, piles, snakebite, paralysis, dropsy etc. Jatropha grows wild in many areas of India and even thrives on infertile soil. A good crop can be obtained with little effort. Depending on soil quality and rainfall, oil can be extracted from the jatropha nuts after two to five years. The annual nut yield ranges from 0.5 to 12 tons. The kernels consist of oil to about 60 percent; this can be transformed into biodiesel fuel through esterification. Family: Euphorbiaceae Synonyms: Curcas purgans Medic. Vernacular/common names: English- physic nut, purging nut; Hindi - Ratanjyot Jangli erandi; Malayalam – Katamanak; Tamil – Kattamanakku; Telugu – Pepalam; Kannada – Kadaharalu; Gujarathi – Jepal; Sanskrit – Kanana randa. Distribution and habitat It is still uncertain where the centre of origin is, but it is believed to be Mexico and Central America. It has been introduced to Africa and Asia and is now culti-vated world-wide. This highly drought-resistant spe-cies is adapted to arid and semi-arid conditions. The current distribution shows that introduction has been most successful in the drier regions of the tropics with annual rainfall of 300-1000 mm. It occurs mainly at lower altitudes (0-500 m) in areas with average an-nual temperatures well above 20°C but can grow at higher altitudes and tolerates slight frost. It grows on well-drained soils with good aeration and is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. Botanical Features It is a small tree or shrub with smooth gray bark, which exudes a whitish colored, watery, latex when cut. Normally, it grows between three and five meters in height, but can attain a height of up to eight or ten meters under favourable conditions. Leaves It has large green to pale-green leaves, alternate to sub-opposite, three-to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis. Flowers The petiole length ranges between 6-23 mm. The inflorescence is formed in the leaf axil. Flowers are formed terminally, individually, with female flowers usually slightly larger and occurs in the hot seasons. In conditions where continuous growth occurs, an unbalance of pistillate or staminate flower production results in a higher number of female flowers. Fruits Fruits are produced in winter when the shrub is leafless, or it may produce several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Each inflorescence yields a bunch of approximately 10 or more ovoid fruits. A three, bi-valved cocci is formed after the seeds mature and the fleshy exocarp dries. Seeds The seeds become mature when the capsule changes from green to yellow, after two to four months from Flowering and fruiting habit The trees are deciduous, shedding the leaves in the dry season. Flowering occurs during the wet season and two flowering peaks are often seen. In permanently hu-mid regions, flowering occurs throughout the year. The seeds mature about three months after flowering. Early growth is fast and with good rainfall conditions nursery plants may bear fruits after the first rainy season, direct sown plants after the second rainy season. The flowers are pollinated by insects especially honey bees. 2.Ecological Requirements Jatropha curcas grows almost anywhere – even on gravelly, sandy and saline soils. It can thrive on the poorest stony soil. It can grow even in the crevices of rocks. The leaves shed during the winter months form mulch around the base of the plant. The organic matter from shed leaves enhance earth-worm activity in the soil around the root-zone of the plants, which improves the fertility of the soil. Regarding climate, Jatropha curcas is found in the tropics and subtropics and likes heat, although it does well even in lower temperatures and can withstand a light frost. Its water requirement is extremely low and it can stand long periods of drought by shedding most of its leaves to reduce transpiration loss. Jatropha is also suitable for preventing soil erosion and shifting of sand dunes. Biophysical limits Altitude: 0-500 m, Mean annual temperature: 20-28 deg. C, Mean annual rainfall: 300-1000 mm or more. Soil type: Grows on well-drained soils with good aeration and is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. On heavy soils, root formation is reduced. Jatropha is a highly adaptable species, but its strength as a crop comes from its ability to grow on very poor and dry sites
     
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    Darwin JF-Expert Member

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    [TABLE="class: contentpaneopen"]
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    [TD="class: contentheading, width: 100%"]Jatropha- the Wonder Plant [/TD]
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    [TD="colspan: 2"] "You can generate electricity with bio-diesel from Jatropha" - DG, ECN

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    Jatropha Plantation​
    Despite abundant energy resources in the country, electricity generation and supply has been low and unsatisfactory. Access to electricity has been about 40% on the average and as low as 18% in the rural areas. Research showed that a very common plant in the tropics and especially Nigeria, Jatropha, can provide bio-diesel from its seed. Today, there is the concept known as "Project on Biofuel for Rural Electrification" for which Jatropha has a great promise.
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    Darwin JF-Expert Member

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    Jatropha has the following benefits when looked at from the fuel production angle:

    • it costs almost nothing to grow[​IMG]
    • it is drought resistant
    • it can be grown almost anywhere - even in sandy, saline, or otherwise infertile soil
    • it is easy to propagate (a cutting simply pushed into the ground will take root)
    • it is not invasive, or spreading, or damaging like kudzu
    • it is capable of stabilizing sand dunes, acting as a windbreak, and combating desertification
    • it naturally repels both animals and insects
    • it lives for over 50 years producing seeds all the time
    • it is frost hardy (does not like hard freezes)
    • it does not exhaust the nutrients in the land
    • it does not require expensive crop rotation
    • it does not require fertilizers
    • it grows quickly and establishes itself easily
    • it has a high yield (Jatropha can yield about 1,000 barrels of oil per year per square mile - oil content of the seed is 55-60%)
    • no displacement of food crops is necessary
    • it is great for developing countries in terms of energy and jobs
    • the biodiesel byproduct, glycerine, is profitable in itself
    • the waste plant mass after oil extraction can be used as a fertilizer
    • the plant itself recycles 100% of the CO2 emissions produced by burning the biodiesel
     
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    Darwin JF-Expert Member

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    Jatropha is used for many years as an important source of fuel though it not a well known biodiesel as palm or soy oil. In the recent years the oil of the jartopha are used as a biodiesel. The jatropha plant has been grown for the other purposes like watershed protection, environmental restoration etc. The jatropha tree has the capacity to grow without irrigation in the dry conditions where the biodiesel crops find difficult to survive. The yield of the jatropha plant is also higher then any other biodiesel crop.

    The seeds of the jartopha are crushed and the resulting oil is used to prepare the biodiesel. This high quality biodiesel is used for car engines. And the residue that remains after the oil extraction are also used a biomass feedstock to produce electricity and fertilizers.

    The jatropha plant can yield four times higher than the other biodiesel crops. So a hectare of jatropha oil can produce 1,892 liters of biodiesel.
     
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    Darwin JF-Expert Member

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    Jatropha is a genus of succulent plants, shrubs and trees belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. It is a very important plant of economic importance as it is resistant to drought and pests, and produces seeds containing 27-40% oil, averaging 34.4%. The remaining press cake of jatropha seeds after oil extraction could also be considered for energy production
    Recently these plants were in news for the biofuel obtained from the seeds of jatropha plant was used for fueling the jets in New Zealand and USA. Another important stury about these plants published in last issue of Nature outlook , which features many interesting articles on biofuels.
    [​IMG]
    One interesting story from those articles talks about Garalo, a small town in southern Mali comprising of 10,000 or so inhabitants. This town used to be pitch black as sun sets as had no electricity and so used kerosene to light their homes and places of work, and battery-powered torches to find their way around.
    The locals tried hard for the extension of national grid but could materialize because of lack of funds. Later the farmers wanted to solve the problem by taking into their own hands. They decided to grow jatropha (Jatropha curcas) in their fields, whose seeds produce oil that can be burned to produce electricity cotton. The efforts of the farmers were well supported by a non-governmental organization called Fuels from Agriculture in Communal Technology (FACT). This Netherlands-based foundation assists developing countries to produce and use biofuels.
    Today, local farmers cultivate around 600 hectares of land with jatropha, which is sufficient to provide electricity to 350 homes (which accounts of half of the population of that town) — and businesses, and also powers streets lights.
     
  6. Roulette

    Roulette JF-Expert Member

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    Much like other members of the family Euphorbiaceae, Jatropha plants contain several toxic compounds, including lectin, saponin, carcinogenic phorbol, and a trypsin inhibitor. The seeds of this genus are also a source of the highly poisonous toxalbumin curcin.Despite this, the seeds are occasionally eaten after roasting, which reduces some of the toxicity. Its sap is a skin irritant, and ingesting as few as three untreated seeds can be fatal to humans. In 2005 Western Australia banned Jatropha gossypiifolia as invasive and highly toxic to people and animals. Source: Wikipedia Jatropha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     
  7. khayanda

    khayanda JF-Expert Member

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    Tukitafuta chanzo rahisi mnataka Lowasa na Rostam wafe njaa?????????????? hakilimwi kitu hapa umeme mgao tu na hadi mwisho wa Tanzania
     
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