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kwa nini simu inahitaji minara mingi?

Discussion in 'Tech, Gadgets & Science Forum' started by JAYJAY, Feb 21, 2011.

  1. JAYJAY

    JAYJAY JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Feb 21, 2011
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    nimekuwa nikijiuliza kwa nini simu za mkononi zinahitaji minara mingi tofauti na ile ya redio.karibu maeneo mengi yana minara ya simu lakini minara ya redio sijawahi kuiona huku mitaani lakini bado redio hizo zinasikika karibu maeneo yote. pia nafahamu kuwa redio na simu zote zinatumia electromagnetic waves sasa nini kinasababisha tofauti hii?
     
  2. Kang

    Kang JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Feb 21, 2011
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    Lakwanza ni kuwa simu inasend na kureceive, radio inareceive tu.
    Transmission capacity ya simu obviously ni ndogo sana ukifananinisha na mnara, so haiwezi kusend mbali.
    Pia kila tower ina limited capacity ya kusupport calls kwa wakati mmoja, so kwenye watu wengi inabidi kuwe na towers nyingi ili wote waweze kuongea. Mwisho waves tofauti zina characteristics tofauti pamoja kwamba zote ni electromagnetic waves.
     
  3. JAYJAY

    JAYJAY JF-Expert Member

    #3
    Feb 21, 2011
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    nimekuelewa mkuu, maelezo yako yanajitosheleza kabisa!
     
  4. Mtazamaji

    Mtazamaji JF-Expert Member

    #4
    Feb 21, 2011
    Joined: Feb 29, 2008
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    Niliwai kujiuliza maswali kama haya na kusoma article na kitabu vilinifafanulia vizuri sana

    Ila ngoja nijaribu kueleza kuona kama nilikariri au kuelewa yale niliyoyasoma . teh teh teh teh. Watalama watanikosoa.

    Ni hivi
    Kimsingi simu ni kama radio kama ulivyosema lakini tofauti yake na radio ni kuwa Radio zimetengenezwa kupokea tu matangazo.(google maneno kama broadcast, Muliticast,unicast uelewe zaidi ) Wakati simu za mkononi zinapokea na zinatakiwa kuwa kuwa uwezo wa kurusha matangazo. Kwa hiyo simu zina transmiiter japo transmiister za kwenye simu uwezo wake ni mdogo sana hivyo kuhitaji retramsiiter ambayo ndio hiyo minara



    Kwa lugha nyepesi unaweza kusema kila simu ni kama kituo cha radio lakini transimmiter za kwenye simu za mkononi hazina uwezo( power) kurusha matangazo na hivyo kuhitaji uwepo wa mnara maeneo ya karibu. Ndiyo maana simu zinahitaji kuwa na minara karibu tofauti na radio sabbau radio kazi yake ni kupokea tu wakati simu ili iwe na maana inatakiwa kuwa na uwezo kupokea na kupiga ( transmit).

    Sasa power ya simu binasfi haitoshi kurusha mawimbi kutoka kwa mpigaji mpaka kwa mpokeaji bila kupitia kituo fulani( Mnara) na hivyo hivyo power ya reciver kwa mpokeaji haina nguvu ya kumfanya mtu apokee pokea mawasilino bila kupitia kwenye re transmiiter ya karibu(Mnara)

    Vile vile kuna uhaba wa frequency.au Masafa.
    Mahitaji ya masafa ni makubwa sana kuliko uwezo uliopo. Imebidi zitumiwe mbinu za kuwezesha kitu kinaitwa frequency re use. Kwa hiyo kampuni za simu zinatenga mji katika Cell mbali mbali . kila cell inaweza kutumia frequency fulani. Frequncy iliyotumika inaweza kutumika tena na kituo cha mbali kidogo.

    Mfano Cell au mnara wa tigo kijitonyama unaweza kutumia frequency/ masafa ya “x” then mnara wao Posta ukatumia frequency “Y” na mnra wa Uwanja wa ndege ukatumia tena frequency “X” na mnara wa mbagala ukatumia tena frequency Y. Hii inawawezesha kutumia frequency ndogo waliyopewa kuwahudumia wateja wengi.


    Hope nimejaribu nikipata ile link ya kitabu na article nilizosma nita kudondoshea hapa.
     
  5. Masika

    Masika JF-Expert Member

    #5
    Feb 21, 2011
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    Asante tena
     
  6. Mutensa

    Mutensa JF-Expert Member

    #6
    Feb 21, 2011
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    @ kang, asante kwa maelezo mazuri sana.
    Pia kwa kuongezea, ni kuwamba katika maeneo yenye watu wengi, minara inawekwa katika mpangilio wa seli (cellular system) kiasi cha minara hiyo kupokezana mara mtu anapokuwa anaongea na simu. Kadri unavyotembea na simu yako kutoka sehemu moja hadi nyingine, ukubwa wa mawimbi unapungua kuzingatia sheria ya kinyume cha kipeo cha pili cha umbali ( inverse square law). Hii inamaanisha kuwa ukienda mbali zaidi, wingi au nguvu za mawimbi zinapungua.
    Hivyo ukienda mbali na mnara mmoja, unakaribia karibu zaidi ya mnara unaofuatia, kwa hivyo vipimo vinavyofanyika kati ya simu yako na mtambo kwa kudhibiti minara ( base station controller) vinawezesha mtambo huo kufanya maamuzi ya kukuhamishia kwenye mnara mwingine ulio karibu nawe ili uendelee kutandaa kwa ubora ule ule wa sauti au data.
    Kwa maeneo yaliyo mbali lakini yakipokea weak signals kutoka kwenye minara mingi kwa wakati mmoja huku zikiwa mbovu, huwa kunatokea kuruka ruka kwa simu kati ya minara hiyo, hii huitwa ping pong handover. Husababisha mawasiliano kuwa mabovu sana.
    Maeneo kama haya endapo yana watu ila si wengi kuwezesha mwekezaji kuweka mnara mwingine kwa hofu ya kuoata kipato (maana mnara mmoja unagharimu si chini ya m300), sehemu hizo hufungwa kikuza mawimbi (repeater).
    Kama kuna mtu ataoenda kujua zaidi namna kikuza mawimbi kinavyofanya kazi na aina zake, naweza kutoa somo fupi. Naachia hapo kwa sasa nisiwachoshe maana najua si watanzania wengi wenye kupenda kujua kwa kina sana, ila kama itaonekana kuna wanaopendelea, tunaweza kuendelea tuuuuuu. Pia kama kuna mwenye kuoenda kuvhallenge nilichoandika, namkaribisha sana maana tuko humu kufundisha na kujifunza.
     
  7. K

    KIDUNDULIMA JF-Expert Member

    #7
    Feb 21, 2011
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    lakini mbona minara ni mingi kwenye bara la africa na hasa Tanzania wakati Ulaya au marekani huoni utitiri wa minara? au ndo tunatumia outdated technologies?
     
  8. Kang

    Kang JF-Expert Member

    #8
    Feb 22, 2011
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    Technolojia more or less ni ile ile sema wenzetu wako clever kidogo.

    [​IMG]
    Disguised Cell Towers - A Waymarking.com Category
     
  9. Papa Diana

    Papa Diana JF-Expert Member

    #9
    Feb 22, 2011
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    Aah Mkuu mimi ningependa kujua zaidi kuhusu hizi repeater....na especially gharama zake...Natoka kijiji kimoja huko songea ambapo mawasiliano ya simu hayafiki...(signal inapatikana kama 40-50Km away from the village); mnara tumeomba lakini wahusika wanaona hailipi!!
    Je tunaweza kutumia hizi repeaters??
     
  10. Zasasule

    Zasasule JF-Expert Member

    #10
    Feb 22, 2011
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    nice info..the hme of great thnkrz
     
  11. drphone

    drphone JF-Expert Member

    #11
    Feb 22, 2011
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    ni hili network iweze kupatikana kwa uraisi mkuu
     
  12. Maria Roza

    Maria Roza JF-Expert Member

    #12
    Feb 22, 2011
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    Mbona nchi za wenzetu minara ya simu haizagai ovyo kama bongo??
     
  13. ThinkPad

    ThinkPad JF-Expert Member

    #13
    Feb 22, 2011
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    Na mimi nachangia kama ifuatavyo,
    mawimbi ya simu na ya radio ni tofauti.
    Simu inatumia mawimbi aina ya microwave ambayo yana madhara katika protin aka mtu
    hivyo kulingana na athari wame yadogosha mawimbi ya simu ili madhara yawe madogo.
    Baada ya kudogeshwa hayo mawimbi yakapelekea mawasiliano yawe hafifu maana wave za kwenye simu ni low range hazifiki mbali sana.
    Kuboresha mawasiliano wakaweka minara mingi kwa ku target user.
    Kingine minara hiyo ni switch yaani mnara mmoja unapokea mawasiliano kutoka mnara mwengine na kupasiana mnara hadi mnara.
    Kama ukiwa mbali na mnara ukatumia simu inakuwa inafanya kazi kubwa na kutumia nguvu nyingi.
     
  14. Mtazamaji

    Mtazamaji JF-Expert Member

    #14
    Feb 22, 2011
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    Minara ipo sema wanaiweka katika design amabyo ni kama si ya kuvutia basi ni ya kificho. kama jamaa lvyoweka hapo juu hiyo picha ni mnazi artificial lakini una vifaa vya vya simu
    [​IMG]


    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]


    Kwa hiyo hata wakiweka vifaa vyao kwenye majengo mrefu wanavifweka kwa njia amabayo mtu unaweza usijue kama ni tower ya simu. Unaweza kuona kitu kwenye jengo kama tanki la maji kumbe ndo wamemaliza.

    Art+ Design+ engineering= ????
     

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  15. g

    geophysics JF-Expert Member

    #15
    Feb 22, 2011
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    Jibu langu ningesema ni tatizo la kiteknologia ndo linasababisha minara ya simu iwe mingi kuliko ya radio... Ingawa sina utaalam wa aina yoyote. Jibu langu nalilinda na sababu moja kuwa ukienda Marekani au Uingereza na nchi zilizoendelea minara ya simu ipo michache au hakuna kabisa ukilinganisha na Tanzania ambapo kila mtaa unakuta minara si chini ya minne....
     
  16. lm317

    lm317 JF-Expert Member

    #16
    Feb 22, 2011
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    Ipo mingi zaidi! ila inafichwa.
    wao wanatumia simu kama zetu, watakosaje minara!
    Ukiona Bundi ujue Panya wapo!
     
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