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Ijue Ndege Aina Ya B-2 Bomber

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Elimu (Education Forum)' started by Mwazange, May 23, 2008.

  1. Mwazange

    Mwazange JF-Expert Member

    #1
    May 23, 2008
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    B2-Bomber ni mojawapo ya ndege zenye majukumu makubwa muhimu katika sekta ya ulinzi ya Jeshi la Marekani. Ndege hii ina uwezo wa kubeba mizinga ya kawaida na hata ile ya kinyuklia kama ikihitajika. Ndege inayopatikana katika jeshi la anga la marekani pekee. Kuundwa kwake ilikuwa ni mojawapo ya mafanikiio makubwa katika kulifanya jeshi hilo kuwa la kisasa.
    B-2 ni ndege yenye teknolojia inayotegemewa kusaidia kupenya anga ambazo zilijulikana kuwa si rahisi kupenyeka hapo awali.

    Maisha ya ndege ya B-2 yalianzia kwenye mpango mmoja maarufu kwa jina la ‘black project' (HAPB) ‘High Altitude Penetrating Bomber' (HAPB), halafu wakaurekebisha mpango huo na kuuita Advanced technology Bomber (ATB) ambayo ndio ikaja kwa jina la B-2 Spirit.

    Utafiti wa kutengeneza ndege hizi uliigharimu serikali ya marekani dola bilioni 23. Fedha hizo ziliombwa katika bunge la marekani na kutumiwa kisiri kwa kivuli cha majina ya mazoezi mengine, mojawapo ikiwa ni kuongeza fungu la kutengeneza ndege chakavu katika jalala lao la kutupia ndege mbovu lililoko jimbo la Arizona.

    Hapo awali mpango huo ulikuwa utengeneze ndege 132, lakini baadae zikapunguzwa hadi 75 mwishoni mwa miaka ya 80 kutokana gharama za mpango wenyewe, na kupunguzwa tena hadi kufikia ndege 20 kutokana na lengo kuu la kutengenezwa kwa ndege hizo kuisha. Lengo lilikuwa ni kupambana na Urusi ya zamani USSR, lakini baada ya USSR kuvunjika, serikali ya marekani ikaona haina haja ya kutengeneza ndege nyingi na za ghali za aina hiyo.

    Thamani ya kutengeneza ndege moja aina hii ni dola za kimarekani milioni 737 lakini ukijumlisha na gharama za utafiti makazi na matengenezo, inafikia takriban dola bilioni 2.1 kwa ndege moja.
    Kampuni iliyopewa zabuni ya kutengeneza ndege hizi ijulikanayo kwa jina la Northrop Grumman, yenye makao makuu yake jimbo la California, iliingia mkataba na serikali ya Marekani kutengeneza ndege zote 120 kwa gharama ya takriban dola milioni 550 kwa ndege, lakini baada ya serikali kuvunja mkataba huo, kwa kupunguza hadi ndege 20 ndio ikawagharimu dola milioni 187 zaidi kwa kila ndege.

    Teknolojia iliyoko kwenye ndege hii ni ya hali ya juu kabisa ambayo rekodi yake haijavunjwa na ndege nyingine yoyote hadi hivi sasa katika medani ya kivita. Ndege hii ina mtandao wa tarakilishi wa hali ya juu, mizinga yake yenye uzito wa kilo 2268 kila mzinga inaweza kupangwa kushambulia hadi sehemu 16 tofauti mahali popote duniani kabla ya ndege kuondoka na vilevile inaweza kubadilishiwa sehemu za kushambulia ikiwa angani.
    Ndege hii inaweza kwenda umbali wa kilomita 11,100 bila ya kuongezwa mafuta kwa mwendokasi wa kilomita 760 kwa saa.
    Makao ya ndege hizi tokea zilipokabidhiwa kwa serikali ya marekani mnamo mwaka 1993 hadi sasa ni kambi ya jeshi ya Whiteman Air Force Base iliyoko katika jimbo la Missouri.
    Safari yake ya kwanza ya kivita ilikuwa ni mwaka 1999 katika vita ya Kosovo ambapo zilitumwa kwenda kushambulia maeneo muhimu ya kivita ya nchi ya Yugoslavia ya zamani ikiwa chini ya raisi Slobodan Milosevic.

    Mbali na mafanikio yote hayo; ndege hizi zina historia ndogo sana ya matatizo ikiwa mojawapo iliyotokea mwaka huu tarehe 23 februari katika kambi ya jeshi ijulikanayo kwa jina la Andersen Air Force Base iliyoko katika visiwa cha Guam. Ndege ilidondoka mara tu baada ya kupaa na kuweka kuwa ndio ndege ya kwanza kudondoka katika historia ya ndege hizi. Chanzo cha ajali bado kinachunguzwa.

    Vibweka vilivyotokea katika zoezi zima hili ni kama kile cha bwana Noshir Gowadia, mhandisi aliyekuwa akifanya kazi katika mabawa ya ndege hizi kujaribu kuiba nyaraka za siri ili kuziuza nje ya nchi. Huyu bwana alikamatwa Oktoba mwaka 2005 na kesi yake kuanza tarehe 12 mwezi Februari 2008. Mwaka 1984, mfanyakazi wa Northrop Grumman, Thomas Cavanagh, alikamatwa na kuhukumiwa jela maisha kwa kujaribu kuondoka kiwandani na nyaraka za siri za mpango huo kwa ajili ya kwenda kuziuza katika serikali ya Kisovieti wakati huo.

    Next time tutaangalia aina nyingine ya ndege zitambazo katika anga za kijeshi duniani.
     

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  2. Pundit

    Pundit JF-Expert Member

    #2
    May 23, 2008
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    Fvck the military industrial complex.

    [​IMG]
     
  3. Mwazange

    Mwazange JF-Expert Member

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    May 23, 2008
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    ??!?? Knowledge tu hii mkuu...
     
  4. Pundit

    Pundit JF-Expert Member

    #4
    May 23, 2008
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    I didn't say it wasn't, did I?
     
  5. Kibunango

    Kibunango JF-Expert Member

    #5
    May 23, 2008
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    Tz zipo?
    Na kama zipo..
    zipo sehemu gani?
     
  6. N

    Ngereja JF-Expert Member

    #6
    May 23, 2008
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    Kumbuka hata Russia wana ndege yenye sifa kama hizo hizo lakini inaitwa kwa jina tofauti.
     
  7. N

    Ngereja JF-Expert Member

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    May 24, 2008
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    Tupelov Tu-95
    This huge Soviet long-range bomber, nicknamed the Bear, was designed to carry up to four nuclear bombs to the U.S. mainland from bases in Russia. Launched at the Moscow air show in 1955, its existence led American planners to believe there was a bomber gap between the Soviet Union and the U.S. In reality, the Bear stretched Soviet technology to the limit, but it could still pack a big punch and for three decades was a major threat to Western forces.

    Today there is even new model and more sophisticated bomber than that of 1955
     
  8. Kibunango

    Kibunango JF-Expert Member

    #8
    May 24, 2008
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    [​IMG]
     
  9. Mwazange

    Mwazange JF-Expert Member

    #9
    May 24, 2008
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    Mkuu si tutamtoa macho muheshimiwa raisi kama akiidhinisha ununuzi wake; kwanza hao wenyewe wala hawataki kuziuza; Saudi Arabia walishatoa dau kununua baadhi, washkaji wakakataa, sasa hadi tunaenda mitamboni ni wao tu ndo wanazozimiliki.
     
  10. Mwazange

    Mwazange JF-Expert Member

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    May 24, 2008
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    Ndio mkuu nafahamu kama Russia wanayo ndege uliyoitaja, lakini kumbuka tu ya kwamba katika maelezo yangu nimetaja neno "kisasa". Tupelov Tu-95 ilianza kazi mwaka 1956 na bado inatumia mashine nne aina ya Kuznetsov NK-12 turboprop. Lakini B-2 ni stealth technology. Tofauti ni kubwa mno kati ya ndege hizo mbili, kama utahitaji nitoe tofauti zaidi, sio tatizo mkuu....
     
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