Historia ya Wachagga: Koo, Kabila na Falme-Mangi

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Historia' started by Rev. Kishoka, Aug 3, 2008.

  1. Rev. Kishoka

    Rev. Kishoka JF-Expert Member

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    Baada ya kuona swali la JMushi ambalo ni kilio cha kusikia kuwa Babu yake Mangi Sina alikuwa msaliti, kauli ambayo JMushi anasema ilitolewa na John Mnyika, nimeonelea nifungue hii thread ili wenye kumbukumbu za kihisoria kuhusu ujenzi wa Kabila la Wachaga, koo na himaya za Mangi kutokana na mgawanyiko wa Wachaga, iwe ni Machame kwa Shangali, Kibosho kwa Sina, Marangu kwa Mareale, iwe ni Mangi Rindi, Meli, Pfumba, Molelia na wengine.

    Aidha kutokana na kuongezeka kwa tuhuma za ukabila na hasa kusemekeana Chadema ni cha Wachaga na kuna ubaguzi kati ya Wamachame ambako Mwenyekiti wa Chadema Mbowe anatoka, dhidi ya Wachaga wengine, Kibosho, Uru, Vunjo, Kilema, Rombo nk. ni muhimu tupitie historia ya wachaga kwa manufaa yetu sote, tuijue hii jamii, na ni jinsi gani ilivyoweza kuwa kubwa na kuwa na umahiri katika masuala ya biashara na elimu.

    Natumaini JMushi atatumia fursa hii kujifunza kuhusu Kabila lake na historia yake pamoja na mahusiano kati ya makundi ya wachaga na hivyo kutoa majibu ya maswali aliyonayo hasa kuhusu uadui kati ya Mangi Meli na Mangi Sina.

    Naomba kufunga ukumbi kwa majadiliano na kuelimishana.
     
  2. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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    Nitashukuru kwa darasa waungwana.
    Ahsante sana Rev Kishoka...Na pia tunaomba Mnyika ambaye anagombea huko Ubungo uliko...Ajitahidi kuja hapa na kukusikiliza ili atowe ufafanuzi ili na mimi nielemishwe.
    Once again nashukuru sana na ninategemea nafasii hii itatumika kutuelemisha.
     
  3. Rev. Kishoka

    Rev. Kishoka JF-Expert Member

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    Mushi,

    Ikifuata Wikipedia ukatafuta Chaga, utapata historia ndogo ya Uchaga na walikotoka.

    Hata hivyo naambatanisha hii makala niliyoipata Harvard university inaweza kukusaidia.
     

    Attached Files:

  4. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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    Mchungaji...Shukran...Naomba pia usisahau kuwa madhumuni halisi ya wewe kuanzisha thread hii ni baada ya kudai kuwa mimi kuliuliza suala hili kwenye ile thread nyingine haikufaa.
    Na hivyo basi ningeomba Mnyika ajaribu kutowa maelezo ya kihistoria ili wengine wetu tuweze kuelewa kuwa usaliti huo wa Sina ni upi.
    Siko hapa kuchaguwa upande upi ni mzuri ama upi ni mbaya...Inawezekana kweli ni msaliti na mimi sijui...Hivyo maelezo yangesaidia kwani ndio kuelimishana huko pamoja na kujengana kwa kuthamini na kueleweshana kuhusu historia ya Taifa letu kwa ujumla...Taifa nalo litanufaika pia na historia ya usaliti huo.....Usaliti ambao kwa kweli ni muhimu Mnyika auweke wazi kwani alisema ulisababisha damu ikamwagika dhidi ya Mdachi.
    Ahsante.
     
  5. Mzeeba

    Mzeeba JF-Expert Member

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  6. Mzeeba

    Mzeeba JF-Expert Member

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    THE CHAGGA AND THEIR CHIEFS History of the Chagga People of Kilimanjaro. By KATHLEENM . STAHL. The Hague: Mouton, I964. Pp. 394, maps. 32 Guilders.

    This book is the result of four years' work, of which eighteen months were spent in fieldwork among the Chagga. It was written at the invitation of the Chagga Trust, which evidently supplied interpreters and arranged interviews with the Chagga elders. The complexity of the task can be gauged from Mrs Stahl's remark that in Chaggaland the 'historical units' are the 133 mitaa, or parishes, of which about I00 represent the now submerged petty kingdoms of former days. In one sense it is a disappointing book. There is, for example, the whole gamut of questions concerning the historical relations of the Chagga with the neighbour-ing peoples of East Africa.

    Chagga traditions of origin are extremely varied, and suggest a long process of accretion of population from almost all of the surround-ing regions-Kamba, Teita, Pare, Shambaa, Masai, Arush, and even Nyamwezi. The occurrence of Ntemi, the Nyamwezi word for chief, in the early stages of several of the Chagga dynastic genealogies suggests that the idea of chieftainship may have reached the Chagga directly or indirectly from that source. Other ideas and techniques, such as the elaborate system of irrigation practised by the Chagga from their mountain streams, or the stone fortifications, as yet imperfectly explored but belonging apparently to a comparatively early phase of their political history, raise equally interesting problems of origin, for all of which Mrs Stahl has very little to add to the comments of earlier writers. Her book is concerned almost entirely with the internal history of the Chagga people. The reader must go with her to the mountain; it will not be brought to him.

    Moreover, what chiefly interests her in Chagga history is the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, especially the history of the last hundred years during which traditions can be checked to some extent from written documents. This is not to say that her approach is European-centred, very much the reverse. The central message of her book is the essential continuity of Chagga political history from the pre-colonial to the colonial period. In the pre-colonial period the political history of Chaggaland was that of perennial intrigue and rivalry for position of the leading Chagga states. In this basic competition external factors played a role, but only a subordinate role. The successful Chagga chief was the one who could most effectively manipulate the outsider and use him against his rivals. In the early nineteenth century, before the advent of the main external factors, Kibosho was the leading Chagga state, and in Mrs Stahl's view it still is the natural centre of Chaggaland. But the outside world has always failed to realize this fact, because the external factor has always been manipulated by one of the other states. In the third quarter of the nineteenth century it was Rindi of Moshi who manipulated the Arabs and Swahili and used them to build up a completely spurious picture of his own pre-eminence. At the end of the nineteenth century it was Marealle of Marangu who manipulated the Germans and used them in the most unscrupulous possible way to destroy his rivals. In the second quarter of the twentieth century it was Abdiel of Machame who best understood how to manipulate the British. Though the chiefs lost their sovereignty after I886, [says Mrs Stahl] those of them who won the favour of the European administrators were afforded a steadily opening field of new opportunities. .... It is arguable that Mangi Abdiel of Machame in I946 enjoyed more power than the greatest sovereign ruler, Mangi Sina of Kibosho, had done until the time of his conquest by the Germans in 1891.... Political life continued to centre on the devising of intimate stratagems.... Intimidation continued, chiefs still dispatched their enemies by violence and the murderers were not brought to task.... The Chaggae employed whole new range of political gambits centring on the Boma. The chiefs kept themselves apprised of what was going on there through many informatory channels, from scouts posted as household servants upwards, and there was little that escaped them, whether it was set down in confidential files or in open ones .... All this is no doubt true, and it is a part of the truth which has seldom been appreciated by historians of the colonial period. But it is not the whole truth, and one feels that Mrs Stahl's preoccupation with the internal politics of the Chagga chiefdoms has prevented her from seeing something of more importance -namely the effect of the colonial period on the Chagga people as a whole. While the colonial period lasted, chiefs appeared to be as important as they had been of old, and their ways changed less than those of ordinary people. But the rise of nationalism and of independent African governments has revealed the hollowness of most chiefly survival through the colonial period, and has under-lined the fact that what really mattered during the colonial period was not what went on in the palace but what went on in the mission school. And about this Mrs Stahl has practically nothing to say.


    This is a book review, lakini nadhani kama jmushi na wengine mkikipata kitabu chenyewe itakuwa vizuri zaidi. Maana huyu reviwer amegusia tu nini kilichomo na ambacho hakiko kwenye kitabu chenyewe. Mhh sijui maktaba zetu tutakuwa nacho?
     
  7. M

    Mbega Mzuri Senior Member

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    Lakini si mnaelewa kwamba nchi yetu haina ukabila? sasa mjadala huu usije ukageuka kwa namna yoyote ile, maana mkishajua matabaka ya wachaga mnaweza kugeukia kwa wahaya, wasukuma, wapare na ... mwisho watanganyika!
     
  8. Rev. Kishoka

    Rev. Kishoka JF-Expert Member

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    Kosa kubwa la Watanzania ni kukwepa kuangalia na kujifunza kutoka ukweli wa mambo. Hili ni somo kwetu, hata kama ni chungu kama ndimu.

    Angalia kukwepa kukaa chini na kujadili kasoro za muungano wa Tanganyika na Zanzibar zilipotufikisha.
     
  9. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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    Mjadala huu hauwezi kwenda huko...Mjadala huu utalisaidia Taifa kwani liko njia panda kwa kutokujuwa historia yake toka MKOLONI aje na toka machifu hao wapambane na UKOLONI.

    Mjadala huu hauwezi kuharibika kwani sisi ni wana jf...Na tunaweza kuitumia fursa hii ya forum hii kuweka mambo sawa.

    Hadi sasa maelezo ninayopata yanaonyesha kuwa Sina alikuwa SHUJAA NA KAMANDA WA AFRIKA!

    Hakutaka UBAGUZI na kusema ukweli makabila mengine yalishikiana na mkoloni kupigana na Sina.

    Lakini bado kweli alitetea uhuru....Kuitwa Msaliti na Mnyika ambaye ni SAUTI NZITO YA CHADEMA ndio swala ambalo tunaomba tuelimishwe...Hatusemi kuwa machifu hawa ni perfect...NO!

    Mbona ndugu zetu wengine waliwaita viongozi wao kwa maana ya UTEMI?

    Ofcourse maana halisi ya Mangi ni THE PLANNER...Kwa maana hiyo yeye licha ya uongozi...Pia hu plan namna ya ku move forward.

    Kama yukitumia ile spirit ya wale machifu wetu kuja pamoja..Basi kwasasa tumeshajuwa mipaka ya Taifa ama Bara letu...Na kwa hiyo sasa hvi si kutetea KINGDOM TENA...BALI UHURU WA MWAFRIKA.

    Kwa wale wafuatiliaji wa historia ya wachagga...Wameanzia toka hata Afrika ya magharibi...Bantu.

    Halafu kwa mfano mimi binafsi asili yangu ni mixer ama ni wahamiaji wa kimasai kutoka eneo la oldonyo sambu.

    Na kwahiyo hata Sina mwenyewe ambaye alikuwa na sifa ya KU PROTECT MALI ZA NCHI....Alikuwa ni mpiganaji mwenye asili ya UMASAI.

    Ni vyema kuweka Historia wazi ili hata kama kweli kuna mambo ya rumours ndiyo yawekwe pembeni.

    Kwa mfano Sina alikuwa na sifa ya Giantism na hata wazungu huko Europe walikuwa wakimzungumzia na ilibidi kuwatumia wengine kumbana kama alivyofanya Rindi ku collaborate na waarabu ama Marealle ku collaborate na wajerumani nk.

    Mimi Rafiki yangu mkubwa hata kule kwenye facebook ni mjukuu wa mangi Shangali wa machame...Sasa wale wanaotaka kuleta ukabila ama vijimaneno vya chuki vya kujipendekeza na kuharibu usalama wa Taifa ni watu kama kina Mnyika..Halafu yeye yuko kimnya akiitumia karata ile ile a kuvuruga attention kwa kusema amemtumia message RA...!

    Ni vyema kuja pamoja kama Taifa na wana wa Afrika katika ujenzi wa Bara letu...Na hata kama tukishirikiana na wageni...Basi ushirikiano huo uwe wa manufaa kwa wananchi.

    Bado naendelea kufuatilia maoni na Historia zaidi ili kujuwa hasa nini kiliendelea katika nchi yetu na ni kwanini tuko hapa tulipo.

    Na pia wale wanaosema kuijadili issue hii ni UKABILA basi wamekosea...Nafikiri wamesahahu hata watoto wa JK walishasema na wao ni UKOO WA CHIFU.

    Mimi sikusema ni UKOO WA CHIFU na wala sikuwa na mpango huo..Lakini baada ya ile makala ya MASHUJAA WA TANZANIA NA Kauli ya Mnyika..Basi ni wazi kuwa mjadala huu ni muhimu.
     
  10. Nzokanhyilu

    Nzokanhyilu JF-Expert Member

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    Mimi napenda kujua, kwanini masista wengi ni wachagga? Yesu na Maria.........
     
  11. M

    Msavila JF-Expert Member

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    Swala lako JMushi ni kuelewa historia ya wachaga au wapi Mnyika amequote katika hiyo statement yake? Vinginevyo thread imeanzishwa haitakidhi matakwa yako mpaka Mnyika ajibu.
     
  12. Rev. Kishoka

    Rev. Kishoka JF-Expert Member

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    Mushi,

    Nafikiri inabidi umuulize Mnyika kama alitoa tamko hili kuwa Mangi Sina ni msaliti kwa kutumia nafsi yake binafsi au kama kiongozi wa Chadema.

    Humtendei haki Mnyika au Chadema ukiwajumuisha pamoja na kuwaita wazushi kwa maoni yako kuwa Mangi Sina alikuwa msaliti.
     
  13. A

    AmaniGK JF-Expert Member

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    Mchungaji unajichosha bure tu endelea na mambo yako mengine!!
     
  14. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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    Sawa...Aje kusema kama ni usemi wake binafsi...Hata hivyo wale waliomsapoti kama kina MKJJ na Wembe Mkali labda wanaweza kumsaidia...Ila ni muhimu sana na yeye akaja hapa na kutowa ufafanuzi kwasababu ya nafasi yake kwenye jamii...

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    [​IMG] Ya Kale Ni Dhahabu
    Chambelecho cha maadhimisho ya Siku ya Mashujaa: Tunu yangu kwa wakina Kinjeketile

    Na John John Mnyika

    Kamaradi Kinjeketile na mashujaa wenzako popote mlipo! Hii ni tunu kwenu. Hidaya kwenu mliomwaga damu wakati mapambano kadhaa na Mreno na Mwarabu. Tuzo kwenu nyinyi mliopigana na Ujerumani wakati wa utawala na mliomwaga damu katika vita vya dunia. Heko ninyi ambao damu ilisafisha safari ya kumng’oa Nduli Amin. Heri wewe Sethi Benjamini na wote waliopotesha maisha katika hekaheka za kueneza Azimio la Arusha. Kumbukumbu kwenu mliotoa damu katika mikikimikiki ya mfumo wa vyama vingi kutoka Zanzibar mpaka bara. Damu yenu iliyomwagika haizoleki, ukiwa mlioucha hauzoeleki lakini fikra mlizosimamia hazizeeki. Mapambano bado yanaendelea!

    Kwako Bushiri bin Salim wa Tanga, suriama wa kiarabu na kiafrika, pamoja na nia yako tenge ya kulinda maslahi katika biashara ya utumwa ulimwaga damu kwa kunyogwa Pangani baada ya kuongoza maasi makali dhidi ya kuingia kwa ukoloni wa Kijeruamani-damu yako ilimwagika pamoja na damu za wapiganaji wa Pwani, Morogoro mpaka uhehe. Ewe Mtemi Meli, uliowashinda wadachi mpaka mwenzio Sina alipokusaliti hatimaye wewe na mashujaa wenzako mkamwaga damu kaskazini mkilinda uhuru.Wewe Chifu Mkwawa, tunakukumbuka uliovyowaunganisha wahehe-toka Kalenga, Tosamaganga mpaka ulipoamua kuimwaga damu yako mwenyewe kuliko uhuru upotee mikononi mwako. Mtemi Isiki wa Tabora uliendesha mashambulizi ya kishujaa, hatimaye ukaamua kumwaga damu yako na ya familia yako kwa kujilipua na baruti ili tu usipate aibu ya uhuru kuchukuliwa mbele ya macho yako. Ewe Mtemi Makongoro wa Musoma, ulipambana kwa ushujaa mpaka ilibidi kikosi cha wanamaji kiletwe kupitia miji ya Mombasa na Kisumu kukumaliza.

    Nakutunuku Kinjeketile kwa kuongoza vita vya kutisha vya Maji Maji kwa miaka kadhaa vilivyoanzia vilima vya Matumbi karibu na Kilwa. Nyinyi mlitaka kumwondoa mkoloni kwa nguvu na mlikuwa tayari kumwaga damu kuliko kuendelea kuishi bila ya uhuru. Mapambano yenu yalisambaa maeneo mengi ya ardhi yetu. Ninyi mlikuwa mashujaa kweli kweli mliojua umuhimu wa imani na falsafa katika mapambano-mkawapa watu ujasiri kwa dawa ya “Kugeuza risasi, Kuwa maji”. Pamoja na kushindwa vita na wazalendo zaidi ya laki moja kupoteza maisha katika wakati ambao ardhi ilikuwa na watu wachache yapo mapigano ambayo mlishinda. Pamoja na machifu 47 wa Kingoni kunyongwa damu yenu ilileta mabadiliko katika utawala. Kwa vyovyote vile damu nyingi kiasi hiki iliyomwagika kwa sababu ya kudai uhuru haiwezi kupuuzwa. Hivyo waraka huu ni tunu kwenu. Mapambano bado yanaendelea!

    Nawaandikia waraka huu ninyi wahenga mashujaa muweze kurejea na kurekebisha historia. Najua mnaweza msirudi kimwili, lakini ni vyema kiroho mkandelea kuwa nasi. Fikra zenu za kimapambano hazipaswi kupotea. Kumbukumbu zenu za kishujaa hazistahili kufutika. Taifa lisilo na historia haliishi, linakufa. Kupotosha historia ya mashujaa ni kinyaa. Karibu kila eneo katika nchi yetu yupo shujaa ambaye anaweza kukumbukwa laiti kama historia zenu zingejulikana kizazi hata kizazi na kuwa chimbuko la kujiamini, kujithamini na uzalendo miongoni mwa Watanzania.

    Julai 25 ilikuwa siku nyingine ambapo tulifanya maadhimisho ya kinafiki ya siku ya mashujaa. Mtanishangaa kwa kutumia dhana kali- “UNAFIKI”. Namaanisha!. Ni dhana ambayo mnaifahamu na hamkuipenda. Ndio maana hamkutaka kuishi katika unafiki wa kukubaliana ama kutumiwa na watawala. Mkaamua kupambana! Mkamwaga damu mkiukimbia unafiki. Sasa tunawakumbuka! Lakini nasema tena, tunawakumbuka kwa kufanya maadhimisho ya kinafiki ya siku ya mashujaa. Ndani ya dhana ya unafiki kuna tabia nyingi, mojawapo ni kunena tofauti na matendo na kutenda tofauti na kauli. Na ndiyo tabia tunayoifanya wakati wa maadhimisho ya siku ya mashujaa. Ndio maana nasema, tunafanya maadhimisho ya kinafiki.

    Labda ni waambie wakina Kinjeketile, nini tulifanya huku kama ishara ya kuuadhimisha ushujaa wenu. Siku chache zilizopita 25 Julai, tulijumuika chini ya Amiri Jeshi Mkuu, kwa sasa ni Mheshimiwa Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete-Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania. Yeye mwenyewe hakuwepo, alituma mwakilishi wake. Tulielezwa kwamba Rais yupo kwenye ziara ya kikazi Ujerumani!

    Usiku mmoja kabla tuliwasha mwenge wa uhuru pale Mnazi mmoja. Halafu asubuhi yake gwaride lilijipanga kuwapokea wageni wa Kitaifa. Zikatolewa salam za Rais na wimbo wa Taifa ukapigwa kwa heshima yenu. Kikundi cha Buruji kikapiga “last post” na gwaride likaweka silaha begani. Askari sita waliojipanga vyema wakapindua silaha zao chini na baadae mizinga ikapigwa kwa ajili yenu huku watu wote wakiwa kimya. Gwaride likafanya “present arms” na kikundi cha buruji kikapiga “reveilles”. Gwaride likateremsha silaha na kufungua miguu.

    Halafu silaha za asili ambazo nyingine nyinyi mashujaa mlizitumia zikawekwa kwenye mnara pamoja na maua. Baadhi ya silaha zilizowekwa ni pamoja na mkuki, ngao, sime, shoka, pinde na mishale. Hizi ni kumbukumbu sanifu za mapambano mliyoyafanya.

    Hatimaye zikafuata sala na swala kutoka kwa viongozi wa dini wakiwakilishwa na sheikh, mchungaji, padri na maraji wa wahindu. Ingawaje sikumwona kiongozi wa dini ya jadi-ambao najua baadhi yenu nyinyi mashujaa na wahenga mliwaamini. Pengine dini za jadi zilitoweka na damu zenu. Gwaride likatoa tena heshima na wimbo wa taifa kupigwa ukafuatiwa na itifaki za viongozi wa kitaifa kuondoka. Wakabaki polisi kuzilinda silaha za kumbukumbu ya mashujaa mpaka jioni na hatimaye mwenge wa uhuru ukazimwa kama ishara ya mwisho wa maadhimisho ya kumbukumbu yenu ninyi mashujaa. Niwaulize wakina Kinjeketile, haya siyo maadhimisho ya kinafiki ya mashujaa? Pengine mtanijibu hapana!.

    Ngoja niwaeleze masuala kadhaa halafu niwaulize tena. Siku hizi kuna kitu kinaitwa Bunge, hiki ni chombo cha juu chenye uwakilishi wa wananchi ambacho kunafanya maamuzi mbalimbali ambayo mengine huwa sheria. Chombo hiki ni kama yale mabaraza ya jadi yaliyokuwepo wakati wenu. Wiki iliyopita bunge lilijadili kuhusu maadhimisho ya vita vya Maji Maji ambavyo nyinyi wakina Kinjeketile mliviongoza. Miaka mia moja imepita toka damu yenu azizi ilipomwagika katika mapambano hayo ya kumwondoa mkoloni.Ungekuwepo najua ungekuwa Mbunge wa Kilwa, ungeshangaa sana-Eti maadhimisho ya vita mlivyovianza Kilwa na mapambano ya mwisho yakawa Songea, yanafanyika kinyume chake! Maadhimisho yameanzia Songea na waziri ameahidi pengine yataishia Kilwa. Chacha Wangwe, mbunge wa CHADEMA (wakati wenu hakukuwa na vyama vya siasa vyenye majina haya) jimbo la Tarime, yeye akahoji-kwanini bendera ya taifa isiwekwe rangi nyekundu kama ishara ya kuwakumbuka nyinyi mashujaa wetu? Naibu waziri wa habari na michezo, Mheshimiwa Emanuel Nchimbi-yeye akajibu, hakukuwa na sababu ya rangi nyekundu kuwekwa kwenye bendera ya Taifa kama ishara ya kuwakumbuka mashujaa. Eti, historia ya uhuru wa nchi yetu inaamuliwa kuanzia mkoloni wa mwisho aliyetutawala ambaye ni Muingereza. Sasa kwa kuwa tulipata uhuru wetu kwa amani bila kumwaga damu chini ya uongozi wa mwalimu Nyerere basi hakukuwa na sababu ya kuweka rangi nyekundu. Enyi mashujaa Kinjeketile na wenzako tunaowakumbuka leo mnakubaliana na jibu hili?

    Ndio maana nikasema ni maadhimisho ya kinafiki. Tunanena tofauti na matendo. Nimesema awali, tunaanza maadhimisho ya leo kwa kuwasha mwenge wa uhuru halafu baadae tunaweka silaha za jadi. Kinjeketile na wenzako, iulizeni serikali- kama uhuru wetu tuliupata kwa amani, iulizeni serikali kwanini tunawasha mwenge wa uhuru na baadaye kuweka silaha za jadi? Tunanena tofauti na tunavyotenda? Iulizeni serikali, je harakati za mwisho za uhuru ni kipimo pekee cha historia ya nchi na hivyo kuwa kigezo pekee cha kuamua alama za nchi ikiwemo bendera?

    Enyi mashujaa mlioambana kuulinda uhuru wetu dhidi ya wakoloni kuingia kuanzia wakati wa Mreno, Mwarabu na Mjerumani na kumwaga damu, mnakubaliana na majibu haya? Kushindwa kwenu na hatimaye ukoloni kuingia hakuondoi historia kuwa mlimwaga damu kwa ajili ya kulinda uhuru wa ardhi hii tukiyoirithi!

    Enyi mashujaa mliopambana kuondoa ukoloni hususani ule wa Ujerumani mkamwaga damu, mnakubaliana na kumbukumbu hii? Kwamba mliyoyafanya si historia kuu kama historia ya uhuru toka kwa Mwingereza?

    Enyi mashujaa, waulizeni wataalamu wa historia-baada ya Ujerumani kushindwa na makoloni yake yote kuwekwa chini ya halmashauri ya mataifa na baadaye baraza la udhamini, Tanganyika ikiwekwa chini ya uangalizi wa Uingereza-si kwamba tulikuwa katika hatua za mwisho kabisa za kupewa uhuru ambao tayari tulishaupata kwa damu? Waulizeni pia, hakuna damu yoyote iliyomwagika wakati wa Mwingereza? Je, historia ya nchi yetu iliyojikita katika kipenzi chetu Nyerere imewajumuisha mashujaa wote wa ardhi hii?

    Nasema kwa damu-kuanzia ushindi pamoja na kushindwa dhidi Mjerumani ambao ulileta mabadiliko katika mfumo wa utawala sanjari na mashujaa ambao walikuwa mstari wa mbele katika jeshi la Mwingereza na washirika wake katika vita dhidi ya Mjerumani, vile vita vya dunia ambavyo vilipiganwa pia katika ardhi yetu? Wakina nani walimwaga damu zaidi katika kile kinachoitwa ukombozi ulioletwa na majeshi ya mfalme Afrika (KAR) kama si nyinyi babu zetu?

    Hojini serikali, hivi bendera hii ni ya Tanganyika au Tanzania? Jibu la Nchimbi limetolewa katika muktadha wa historia ya Tanganyika, Ingekuwa vipi jibu lingetolewa mintaarafu bendera ya Tanzania ambayo ilipatikana kutokana na Muungano wa Tanganyika na Zanzibar ilihali visiwani kuna historia ya damu kumwagika ama kumwagwa wakati wa mapinduzi? Kama kweli tuna serikali ya mapinduzi Zanzibar na utawala wa Chama cha Mapinduzi(CCM), je ni mapinduzi yasiyo na ‘rangi nyekundu’?

    Tunatenda tofauti na kauli! Tunafanya maadhimisho ya kinafiki. Wakina Kinjeketile tunawakumbuka kwa kuwa mlimwaga damu kupinga ukoloni na unyanyasaji. Mtuulize wajukuu zenu, je tunawaadhisha kwa kuendelea kupiga vita yale mliyoyakataa? Kwa hali ilivyo, wapo wanaotenda yale mliyoyakataa pamoja na kuwa wote kwa kauli tunawaenzi ninyi mashujaa. Tunapaswa sasa kuweka fikra zenu katika vitendo kwa ajili ya ukombozi wa taifa letu. Mwalimu Nyerere alikumbuka fikra zenu akatamka na kutenda kwamba uhuru, si uhuru wa maneno. Ni uhuru dhidi ya ujinga, uhuru dhidi ya maradhi, uhuru dhidi ya umaskini na baadaye akaongezea uhuru dhidi ya rushwa ama ufisadi. Enyi wahenga mashujaa, shukeni katika nyoyo za watoto na wajuu zenu, mtufanye kutokana na maadhimisho ya mwaka huu tuweke dhamira ya kupigana vita kwa zana kisasa kuleta mabadiliko ya kweli na uhuru wa kweli, kuleta haki na maisha bora. Hii ndiyo hidaya kwa damu yenu azizi. Sio siri, kwa sera bila silaha, mapambano bado yanaendelea!

    Mwandishi wa makala hii ni mwanaharakati na mwanasiasa kijana anayepatikana kupitia [email protected] na 0744 694 553

    Kumbukumbu toka:http://www.chadema.net/makala/mnyika/mnyika_13.html
    __________________
    Kizazi Kipya, Maisha Mapya
    New Generation, New Life

    Mabadiliko ya Kweli, Uhuru wa Kweli
    Real Change, Real Freedom

    John Mnyika
    [​IMG] [​IMG] [​IMG] [​IMG]

    The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to John Mnyika For This Useful Post: mpaka kieleweke (26th July 200, Mzee Mwanakijiji (25th July 200, wembemkali (28th July 200
     
  15. M

    Masatu JF-Expert Member

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    Mkimaliza hiii mtuletee historia ya koo za Kihaya....
     
  16. Ben Saanane

    Ben Saanane Verified User

    #16
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    Mkuu,
    Acha hizo amri zako bwana.Si hata wewe waweza kujitahidi tu na kuwaletea wengine?
     
  17. Mzee Mwanakijiji

    Mzee Mwanakijiji JF Platinum Member

    #17
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    Nimesoma taratibu na kuona tatizo la Jmushi ni nini; Ni wazi kauli hii ndio msingi wa madai yake:

    Sasa kwa mtu anayesoma anaweza kuelewa kitu kimoja kuhusu kauli hii ya Mnyika.

    a. Kwamba Mangi Sina alimsaliti Mangi Meli.
    b. Usaliti huo inawezekana kuwa kulikuwa na kitu wafanye (Sina na Meli) ambacho mmoja wao aliendelea kukifanya au aliacha kukifanya na mwingine akaona amegeukwa.

    Sasa vyovyote vile, jibu la swali la Jmushi liko kwenye historia. Inaonekana Mnyika amesema kitu ambacho ni kama accepted historical fact kuwa Mangi Sina alimsaliti Mangi Meli.

    Hivyo, ni jukumu la Mushi sasa kwenda kwenye historia na kumuonesha Mnyika kuwa hilo si kweli; siyo kutaka maelezo ya Chadema, Mnyika, na watu waliosema "thanks" kwa Mnyika kwa post yake nzima na siyo kamstari kamoja.

    Jmushi, fanya research nyepesi tu uoneshe kuwa hakukuwa na usaliti kati ya Meli na Sina na Mnyika ataonesha wa kwake.
     
  18. Mpaka Kieleweke

    Mpaka Kieleweke JF-Expert Member

    #18
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    Wachagga kutoka Rombo asili yao ni Kenya, wachagga wa Marangu asili yao ni Kenya kabila la kikuyu, Wachagga wa Machame asili yao ni wamasai,wachagga wa Rombo useri asili yao ni wakamba kutoka kenya, n.k...
     
  19. Mzee Mwanakijiji

    Mzee Mwanakijiji JF Platinum Member

    #19
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    Nimesoma hili:

    Mangi Sina of Kibosho
    in the same area, [Kilimanjaro region] and in permanent competition with Mangi Rindi, Mangi Sina had by 1870 developed a great large army and was active in agriculture and cattle raids. He was still in control of his empire at the unfortunate arrival of the Germans in 1891, which broke down most of Chagga lifestyle through "colonisation".


    Rindi
    Mangi Rindi of the a subgroup of the Chagga was another major chief ruling in the Kilimanjaro region in 1860, making the now, city of Moshi an important base for ivory and game trading with Zanzibar. He manipulated and signed a Treaty with the Germans in 1885 and the cityMoshi became their headquarters and most important economic and political centre. - Wikipedia..
     
  20. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

    #20
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    Mzee MKJJ Shukran...Naona hujafurahishwa mimi kusema umekubali kuwa Sina ni msaliti kwa kutowa asante baada ya maelezo kuwa Sina alimsaliti Meli hadi akamwaga damu.
    Naomba kuelimishwa kwenye hilo...Na ndio maana halisi ya mada hii...Kauli ya kutaka kunifanya nionekane sijasoma historia si nzuri.
    Ila tunaweza tukaelimishana kwa manufaa yetu wenyewe na kizazi kijacho...Ni muhimu kujuwa historia ili kutambuwa tulikotoka...Tulipo...Na ni direction gani tuchukuwe towards THE FUTURE.
     
  21. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

    #21
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    Kama mimi nina asili ya Sina...Na asili yetu ni kutoka MASAI...Then hapo inakuwa vipi?
    Halafu hapo juu sijaona ulipotaja kuhusu Kibosho...Naona hutaki kuelewa kuwa Afrika ni moja....Sasa kabla hatujaanza kuelezana kuwa wachagga wametokea Afrika NZIMA...Na waliamia maeneo hayo miaka ya nyuma.
    Ila kabla hatujarudi kote huko...Tuanzie tu na era ya colonialism...Wakati tulipovamiwa na mwarabu na mzungu....Wakati wa resistance...Ndugu zangu..Ile spirit ya kulinda mali za Taifa dhidi ya MKOLONI NA MAMLUKI WAKE ILIKUWA NI YA SINA.
    Kusema ni msaliti kumetoka wapi?
     
  22. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

    #22
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    Tom von Prince (awarded the title 'von' in recognition of his many acts of bravery), had spent his military life fighting all over Tanganyika; against Isike in 1887, Machemba of the Yao in 1890, Sina of Kibosho in 1891, and he waged a gallant war against the Hehe, who, in spite of having nick- named him 'Bwana Sakarani' - the Wild Man - on account of his fierce temper - held him in such esteem that the German Colonial Office exiled him to the Usambaras.
    Enrolled in General Lettow von Vorbeck's Army during World War I, he was killed in action in November 1914, leading an assault against British troops in Tanga where he lies buried.

    Historical Moshi
    Moshi was the capital of an area ruled by Rindi, the great 19th century Chagga chief who became one of the most important chiefs in the area due to his diplomatic skills. Allying with the Maasai, he exhorted large taxes from passing caravans. When the first German colonial troops arrived at Kilimanjaro in 1891, Rindi assured them he ruled the whole area and convinced them to unite with him against his rival, Sina of Kibosho, signing away his territories rather than succumb to an undignified defeat. Both the powerful Rindi and Sina were hanged a few years later. Moshi became an important colonial centre of administration for the Germans, and later the English. The original Moshi - Old Moshi - is higher up the mountain and until the railway line reached the present day Moshi in 1911 and a station built, the headquarters of the German administrative district of Moshi was in Old Moshi.

    Kilimanjaro Region
    The region has a remarkable landscape, beginning with Mount Kilimanjaro, moving down the slopes to the flat plains south of the mountain then eastwards where you encounter the Pare Mountains. The Mkomozi Game Reserve lies behind the Pare Mountains. West from the Pare Mountains, you look over what seems to be everlasting flat plains, the Maasai Steepe, one of the places where the Maasai live. Discover for yourself the diversity in landscape, people and culture of the Kilimanjaro region.
    People of Kilimanjaro
    Although the town of Moshi itself is home to a range of different people, the Kilimanjaro region is predominantly made up of the Chagga, who reside on the slopes of Kilimanjaro and the Pare whose home is the Pare Mountains.
    The fertile volcanic soil and reliable rainfall on the slopes of Kilimanjaro has probably always been a draw for human settlement. The Chagga are Bantu-speaking agriculturalists whose ancestors probably arrived in the area in the 15th century. The Chagga had no tradition of central leadership. Up to 100 small chiefdoms existed in the mid 19th century. Their efficient and industrious farming skills meant that they have always produced a food surplus and subsequently have a history of trading with the Maasai and other local groups, and later with Arab caravans.
    Chaggas remain self sufficient for basic foodstuffs and today the mountain is scattered with family smallholdings that produce a variety of subsistence crops. The major cash crop is coffee, which was introduced during the colonial era and has been grown by small scale farmers who sell through a co-operative. The main agricultural activity is still coffee and some of the finest Arabica in Tanzania comes from the slopes of Kilimanjaro. Coffee growing is the livelihood of thousands of people. The Chaggas have a reputation for industriousness, and today many of Tanzania’s political and business leaders come from Kilimanjaro.
     
  23. M

    Mwikimbi JF-Expert Member

    #23
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    mimi ni mtanznia halisi, uchaga au uhaya au upare kwangu hauna maana, ningekuwa na uwezo ningechoma vitabu vyote vya historia ya makabila, nisafishe bongo zote za watu wanaofikiri kikabila, wafikiri tu kuhusu taifa langu la tanzania,

    tazama, hapa jf watu walianza kuzungumza kijimbo, baadaye kikabila, na sasa jmushi anazungumza ndani ya ukabila yaani ukibosho au umachame.

    ile dhambi ya ubaguzi ndo hiyo sasa imetugawa na imeanza kututafuna.

    mimi simo
     
  24. P

    Phillemon Mikael JF Gold Member

    #24
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    ...lakini juzi spika sitta kamtambulisha mfalme[chief] wa wanyamwezi katambulishwa bungeni .......akiwa na mawaziri wake ...akiwemo waziri mkuu na malkia....
     
  25. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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    Mwikimbi nakubaliana na wewe..Kwenye UKABILA hata mimi SIMO...Na ndio maana niliwaaasa chadema walishughulikie hilo swala wakagoma ama kupuuzia!
    Hapa ni kauli ya Kiongozi wao siku ya MASHUJAA DUNIANI ALIPOMWITA SINA MSALITI...HAPO NDIPO KWENYE HOJA.
     
  26. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

    #26
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    Kwa kuwarahisishia wale waliomsapoti Mnyika...Mangi Meli alikuwa mtoto wa Mangi Rindi....Connect the dot na MUSEME NANI MSALITI!

    Nilisema waombe radhi kwa kuchochea UKABILA WAMEKATAA!
    Kwasababu waligoma wazi wazi kulimaliza swala la Wangwe...Then huo UZITO WAO WA KUTO KUOGOPA UKABILA PLUS KAULI ZA KIKABILA ZA CHUKI ZILIZOTOLEWA NA HUYO MNYIKA VINAZIDI KUWAPUKUTISHA HAO NDUGU ZETU.

    Kwanini huyo Mnyika hataki kuweka wazi?
    Na yeye ni KABILA GANI?
     
  27. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

    #27
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    Hilo nitakulete jinsi Dini ilivyoingia na jinsi ilivyopokelewa na ni kwa namna gani ime affect maeneo na mahusiano ya wachagga hao waliotengwa na MKOLONI Kipindi cha nyuma kwa dini nk...
    Kabla ya hayo....Pata kwanza hii preview ya originality ya UAFRIKA..Kwani AFRIKA NI MOJA...

    Wikipedia: chaga


    For the mushroom, see Chaga mushroom.
    ChaggaTotal population2,000,000
    Regions with significant populationsTanzaniaLanguage(s)ChaggaReligion(s)Christian, Islam, indigenous beliefsRelated ethnic groupsOngamoThe Chagga (or Wachaga, Chaga, Jagga, Dschagga, Waschagga, Wachagga) are Bantu speaking indigenous African tribe and the third largest ethnic group in Tanzania. They live on the southern and eastern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru, as well as in the Moshi area. Their relative wealth comes from not only the favorable climate of the area, but also from successful agricultural methods which include great extensive irrigation systems and continuous fertilization practised for thousands of years. They were one of the first tribes in the area to convert to Christianity. This might have given them an economic "advantage" over other ethnic groups, as they had better access to education and health care as Christians.
    The Chagga have descended from various Bantu groups who migrated from the rest of Africa into the wonderous foothills of the mighty Kilimanjaro. While the Chagga are Bantu-speakers, they do not speak an undifferentiated language but rather a unique mixture of related Chagga dialects. These dialects are related to Kamba, which is spoken in the northeast Kenya along with other languages spoken in the east such as Dabida and Pokomo.The Chagga land is traditionally divided into a number of politically independent chiefdoms with a superior egalitarian social system. The Chagga are culturally related to the Pare, Taveta and Teita peoples. They follow a patrilineal system of descent and inheritance. The Chagga subsist primarily by agriculture, using great methods of irrigation on terraced fields and oxen manure to develop the fields. Although bananas are their staple food, they also cultivate various crops including yams, beans, and maize. In agricultural exports, the Chagga are best known for their Arabica coffee, which is exported to American and European markets, resulting in coffee being a primary cash crop.

    Demography

    Current population is estimated at about 1,500,000 ( 2003 estimate), mostly concetrated in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania, and the cities of Arusha and Dar-Es-Salaam.

    Early history

    Early migration patterns of the Niger-Congo Bantu's led the Chagga to settle in the North Pare Mountains. This is the Home of the ancestral chagga. The population growth by about eleventh or twelve century led a number of people to begin looking for a new land on which to live. They found it on the nearby and, in those days, still heavily forested southern and eastern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro. The movement of the early chagga banana farmers to Kilimanjaro set off a period of rapid and extensive cultural amalgamation, in which large numbers of the Ongamo people and the Rift Southern Cushites were assimilated into the newly expanding chaga communities. Though apparently growing in numbers and territory, the chaga remained organised in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries into a great many very small and very local social and political units, whose histories are still largely unstudied by Western scholars. But if the Maasai settled in the open plains around much of the chaga country, they presently cannot be credited with great influence on chaga affairs during this period, another people, the Ongamo or Ngasa who were closely related in language to the Maasai, did have much influence in chaga history.
    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    Traditional Chaga Hut



    Interactions


    Interactions with the Ongamo

    A striking blending of features of ancient Afsan and Niger-Congo civilizations, with some features of Sudanic civilization contributed by the Ongamo, emerged out of this period of cross-cultural encounter. The dominance of the new highland planting agriculture ensured that the new communities came to speak the Chagga Language of the makers of that agriculture. Initially these communities took the form of villages built along highland ridges. This custom apparently preserved an old practice coming from the Kaskazi and Upland Bantu side of their ancestry. The chaga also circumcised boys and initiated them into age-sets of the typical old Bantu type, but at the same time they adopted from the Southern Cushitic side of their ancestry the practice of female clitoridectomy which they stopped after Christianity/Islam came. In a variety of other aspects, Cushitic or Nilotic ideas prevailed in Chaga culture, notable case being music, in which drumming anciently typical of Niger-Congo civilization was entirely lost. The drawing of blood from cattle was a specifically Southern Cushitic addition to the sources of food. And like the Ongamo and Southern Cushites, the emerging chaga society was entirely patrilineal. The beginnings of chaga interactions with the ongamo date well before 1600, and at some point in time the Ongamo had even been the dominant people through much of the Kilimanjaro area. By seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the ongamo were probably becoming increasingly restricted, by chaga expansion, to eastern kilimanjaro. Yet within that region they must have remained an important and still independent society, even as late as the second half of the nineteenth century and in the face of massive acculturation to the chaga about them, ongamo society retained sufficient cohesion to keep its age-set system functioning to some extent.

    Interactions with the Pare and the Outside world

    The Pare had been the chief suppliers of iron to the inhabitants of the mountain regions of north-eastern Tanzania. The demand for Pare iron, increased from the beginning of the nineteenth century. The cause of the increase was the military rivalry among the rulers of the chaga. It is likely that there was a connection between this rivalry and the development of long distance trade from the coast to the interior of the Pangani river basin, suggesting that the chaga made contacts with the coast may have dated to about the end of the eighteenth century. The rivalry among chagga rulers was probably the result of competition among them for the control of the trade with people from the coast. Raids and counter raids characterised the chagga rivalry, as observed and understood by European colonisers. Subsequently there was an increase in demand for pare Iron to forge military weapons to equip the armies of the chaga rulers.

    Early Religion

    In religion a thoroughgoing syncretism took place. The importance of ancestors, a Niger-Congo feature, was strongly maintained by the chagga to this day, they had an idea of Divinity, identified with the majestic sun as life giving, a faith also seen in the Rift Southern Cushitic version of the Sudanic religion, with the creator god concept of the Niger-Congo belief. Later on they became victims of forced Christianity and Islam that destroyed their religious system.

    Life & Food

    Since fish are absent from most of the streams of their areas,like the Taita, fish were seen as unfit to eat, and of them were seen having same nature as serpents, who are considered bad in Chagga culture. The Chagga people bred fowls in large number, to sell to the passing caravans of traders from the East coast, for they themselves abjured poultry as food, it was as seen as unwholesome and unmanly for obvious reasons, like the tenderness of its flesh. Their most prized domestic animals are the oxen, the goat and the sheep the dog however, is used to help guard compounds from intruders at night. The oxen are still highly valued. They belong to the humped Zebu breed prevalent throughout East Africa since the days of Ancient Egyptians. The goats are small and handsome with small horns. Milk is an essential part of Chagga diet. The chagga diet is predominantly meat, but the main diet is vegetables. Among the plants grown for food are maize, sweet potatoes, yams, arums, beans, peas, red millet and bananas. The chagga brew a delicious drink called Mbege, which is made of millet and bananas and left to ferment for 10 days prior to festivities.

    Chaga Chieftains

    Chiefship in chaga appears to be very specific with no influence from early ancestors according to western observations done in the 19th century. In the neary south Pare Mountains, the old clan chiefship of the Mashariki Bantu world, continued to be the ritual center of life among the early Asu and remained so, in fact, down through the nineteenth century. But among the ancentral chaga of North Pare and among their descendants who settled around Mount Kilimanajro, a new kind of chiefship, Mangi, probably originally meaning "the arranger, planner" came into being not much before 1000 AD.

    Chaga Politics The Mangi Rule

    The Mangi are great chiefs that govern largely clan-based states. The great Mangis controlled chaga affairs even during the oppressive and depressing colonial times, even though some ethnic groups did not have such control. It was also during this time that the amazing Chagga held an election in 1952 to elect Mangi Mkuu, (Chief of all Chieftains)' to look after their affairs and speak on behalf of the chagga people. Thomas Marealle of Marangu, Jackson Kitali of Moshi, Abdi Shangali of Hai, Petro Marealle of Vunjo, John Maruma of Rombo, and another divisional chief from Kibosho contested in the election, which saw Chief Thomas Marealle being elected to the post. Mangi Mkuu Consolidated power from the other 3 Chagga Chieftains thus making the Chagga more powerful and in control of their affairs during harsh Colonial times. His capital was in the great town of Marangu. The Practice of Mangi Mkuu led to their sad downfall during the struggle for independence. One might have expected that the most progressive local governments in the country at that time, would have continued to support the national movement now that its aims were becoming realities, and that Mangi Mkuu would have played a leading part. The opposite was the case. Local rivalries determined the issue, thanks largely to colonial mentality. And it was the chaga critics of Mangi Mkuu who ranged themselves behind the Tanganyika African National Union TANU. Significantly enough, Kilimanjaro was the last place in Tanganyika to be won by TANU, and the price of victory unfortunately was the downfall of the great Mangi Mkuu.

    Mangi Sina of Kibosho

    in the same area, [Kilimanjaro region] and in permanent competition with Mangi Rindi, Mangi Sina had by 1870 developed a great large army and was active in agriculture and cattle raids. He was still in control of his empire at the unfortunate arrival of the Germans in 1891, which broke down most of Chagga lifestyle through "colonisation".

    Rindi of the Chagga

    Mangi Rindi of the a subgroup of the Chagga was another major chief ruling in the Kilimanjaro region in 1860, making the now, city of Moshi an important base for ivory and game trading with Zanzibar. He manipulated and signed a Treaty with the Germans in 1885 and the cityMoshi became their headquarters and most important economic and political centre.

    Reasons for Mangi Mkuu's downfall

    Mangi Mkuu's downfall was due to two main reasons:
    • First, He lost support among western educated people. When chaga students at Makerere University criticized him in their college magazine, he publicly humbled them when they came home, in an "old" tribal ways. He placed his faith in Petro Njau, the elderly astute party organizer who had put him in. From 1958 Njau set himself the task of enlisting the support of the old conservatives and the clan elders. This was a spurious return to the great tribal past. But Mangi mkuu believed and trusted implicitly in him, and in the exaggerated accounts of popularity which Njau reported.
    • Second, Mangi Mkuu crossed swords with T.A.N.U on his home ground of Kilimanjaro. He still supported the national aims of T.A.N.U for Tanganyika. He continued to support Julius Nyerere personally, as the national leader long after he had begun to deal summarily with local T.A.N.U critics at home, perhaps because these critics did not need to be taken seriously, since they were insignificantly unrepresentative of the people. In 1957-58 the British Administartion were belatedly trying to organize a council of Chiefs in Tanganyika as a delaying action against T.A.N.U, Mangi Mkuu wrote the governor asking that Nyerere himself should be invited to address the Chiefs. The request was refused. It was not until 1959, when he was fighting for his political life, that Mangi Mkuu cut across Nyerere personally and cut across the national movement as such. In January 1959, by which time he was sharply on the defensive at home, Mangi Mkuu criticized Nyerere's visit to Moshi to hold an open-air TANU meeting in the town. A few months later he circularized the chiefs on the mountain, threatening to sack them if they supported TANU.
    TANU and the Chagga

    In the local field of Chaga politics, however the break came earlier. It did not come from TANU branches as such which, though they had started in 1955 on the mountain, had made little headway among the people. It came from Machame, from the chiefly rival whom Mangi Mkuu had supplanted in 1951. Chief Abdieli Shangali threw the weight of his authority behind his son-in-law, Solomon Eliufoo, and this was the decisive factor. Eliufoo, a commoner from one of the oldest clans in Machame, and a Lutheran-trained teacher, was abroad in the United States and Great Britain from 1953-1956. In 1957 he returned as a teacher and joined the TANU branch in Machame. In 1958 he entered politics; he became a nominated member of the Chagga Council, being nominated by Hai divisional council of which his father-in-law, Chief Abdieli Shangali was chairman. The same year he was elected member of the legislative council in Dar-Es-Salaam on the TANU ticket. From 1958 onwards he was engaged in central politics becoming Minister of Health from 1959 to 1960, and in 1962 Minister of Education, a post which he held up to 1967. At the local level, he organised and led opposition to the Mangi Mkuu and by 1959 he called for the resignation or abdication of the Mangi Mkuu and the democratization for the local governments, forming a new party called Chaga Democratic Party

    The Chagga Democratic Party

    Towards the end of 1959 the opposition of the Chaga Democratic party forced a deadlock in the Chaga Council. A vote was taken in the council as to whether a referendum should be held on Kilimanjaro to decide whether the Chaga wanted a Paramount Chief for life or a periodically elected president. The Vote was carried by a narrow majority, and the Mangi mkuu was abolished. After independence, through Nyerere's socialism and integration policies, the rule of Chiefs, was diminished.

    Modern history

    The current Chagga population is estimated at about 2 million. They once used to live under the rule of the Mangi Mkuu, even though they are not as organised as they used to be, and the Mangi is not involved in the day to day activities and life of the modern chagga. The Mangi's are still respected by the chagga. The Paramount chief (chief of all chiefs) is Mangi Marealle. The chagga are now modern wage earners in large modernised cities or abroad and entrepreneurs in the tourism industry around Kilimanjaro and Arusha areas. The Chagga still try to hold on to some of their traditions like the allocation a kihamba, a plot of land for each family. A kihamba is a Chagga family plot of land, usually passed down from generation to generation. Coffee is the primary cash crop for many Chagga people after its introduction to the area in the late nineteenth century, although bananas and maize are also staples. The Chagga are also famous for a traditional brew known as mbege. It is made from a special variety of bananas and millet.

    See also

    References

    • Ehret, Christopher (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. University of Virginia Press. ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
    • Gray, R (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20413-5.
    • Fasi, M El (1992). Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06698-7.
    • Johnson, H.H (1886). "Copyright: Tubner & Co". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland XV: 12-14.
    • Yakan, Mohamad A (1999). Almanac of African Peoples & Nations. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-56000-433-9.
    External sources



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  28. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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    Yani kweli imenisikitisha sana kwa makabila hayo mengine ya wachagga kutokuzingatia mchango wa SINA NA KWA MAKUSUDI KU DISTORT HISTORIA...Hata hapo juu ni just kuhusu madaraka tu...Sasa hapo Sina HISTORIA YAKE INAPOTEZWA?
    Na si kupotezwa..Bali kubatilishwa kwa makusudi...SASA TUNATAKA KUBADILI HISTORIA KWA MAKUSUDI AMBAYO MATOKEO YAKE NI UKABILA?
     
  29. jmushi1

    jmushi1 JF-Expert Member

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    Africa Photo Gallery
    National Geographic's collection of pictures from all over Africa.
    NationalGeographic.com

    Columbia Encyclopedia: Bantu

    (băn'tū') , ethnic and linguistic group of Africa, numbering about 120 million. The Bantu inhabit most of the continent S of the Congo River except the extreme southwest. The classification is primarily linguistic, and there are almost a hundred Bantu languages, including Luganda, Zulu, and Swahili. Few cultural generalizations concerning the Bantu can be made. Before the European conquest of Africa the Bantu tribes were either pastoral and warlike or agricultural and usually pacific. There were some highly developed Bantu states, including Buganda in present-day Uganda. Possibly under the fear of European encroachment, several additional Bantu states developed in the 19th cent., notably among the Zulu and the Sotho. Other well-known Bantu tribes include the Ndebele (Matabele) and the Shona. In South Africa, the term Bantu is commonly used to refer to the native African population, which was subject to the policies of apartheid. Bibliography
    See W. M. MacMillan, Bantu, Boer, and Briton (rev. ed. 1963); W. C. Willoughby, The Soul of the Bantu (1928, repr. 1970); E. J. Murphy, The Bantu Civilization of Southern Africa (1974).



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    WordNet: Bantu

    Note: click on a word meaning below to see its connections and related words. The noun has 2 meanings:
    Meaning #1: a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of Central and South Africa

    Meaning #2: a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent
    Synonym: Bantoid language

    The adjective Bantu has one meaning:
    Meaning #1: of or relating to the African people who speak one of the Bantoid languages or to their culture
    Pertains to noun: Bantu (meaning #1)



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    Wikipedia: Bantu


    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (light brown) vs. other Niger-Congo languages (medium brown).


    Bantu is a label used in a general sense for over 400 ethnic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa, from Cameroon, Southern Africa, Central Africa, to Eastern Africa, united by a common language family (the Bantu languages) and in many cases common customs.

    Definition

    "Bantu", and similar sounding cognates, means "people" in many Bantu languages. Dr. Wilhelm Bleek first used the term "Bantu" in its current sense in his 1862 book A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages, in which he hypothesized that a vast number of languages located across central, southern, eastern, and western Africa shared so many characteristics that they must be part of a single language group. This basic thesis (of linguistic affinity) has been confirmed by numerous researchers using the comparative method. On the other hand, the theory of a single ethnic group has been widely challenged since it was proposed - not least because a language may be spread by a relatively small number of human carriers.

    Origins

    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    1. = 3000 - 1500 BC origin
    2 = ca.1500 BC first migrations
    2.a = Eastern Bantu, 2.b = Western Bantu
    3. = 1000 - 500 BC Urewe nuclus of Eastern Bantu
    4. - 7. southward advance
    9. = 500 BC - 0 Congo nucleus
    10. = 0 - 1000 AD last phase [1] [2] [3]


    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    Early iron age findings in eastern and southern Africa


    Before the expansion of the Bantu languages and their speakers, the southern half of Africa is believed to have been populated by Pygmies and Khoisan speaking people, today occupying the arid regions around the Kalahari and the rainforest of Congo Basin; whereas Cushites, Nilotes and other people speaking Afro-Asiatic languages inhabited north-eastern and northern Africa. Northwestern Africa, the Sahara, and the Sudan were inhabited by people speaking Mande and Atlantic languages (such as the Fulani and Wolof) and other people speaking Nilo-Saharan languages.
    There are two basic theories of the spread of the Bantu languages and societies. The first was advanced by Joseph Greenberg in 1963. He had analyzed and compared several hundred African languages and found that a group of languages spoken in Southeastern Nigeria were the most closely related to languages from the Bantu group. He theorized that Proto-Bantu (the hypothetical ancestor of the Bantu languages) was originally one of these languages that spread south and east over hundreds of years.
    This was quickly challenged by Malcolm Guthrie who analyzed each Bantu language and found that the most stereotypical were those spoken in Zambia and in the southern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This provided the alternative theory that Bantu speakers had spread from this location in all directions.

    Bantu expansion

    Main article: Bantu expansion
    The Bantu expansion was both a physical migration and a diffusion of language and knowledge into neighboring populations, and societal groups (usually through inter-marriage or by small groups moving to new areas). Bantu speakers developed novel methods of agriculture and metalworking which allowed people to colonize new areas in greater densities. Both linguistics and genetics support the idea that the Bantu expansion was one of the most significant human migrations and expansions within the past few thousand years.
    By about 1000 AD it had reached modern day Zimbabwe and South Africa. In Zimbabwe a major southern hemisphere empire was established, with its capital at Great Zimbabwe. It controlled trading routes from South Africa to north of the Zambezi, trading gold, copper, precious stones, animal hides, ivory and metal goods with the Arab traders of the Swahili coast. By the 14th or 15th centuries the Empire had collapsed, with the city of Great Zimbabwe being abandoned. The expansion primarily ended with the clashes between the Xhosa and Boers at Graaff Reinet inn 1779.
    Another theory, rather unsupported by the existing evidence, held is that the Bantu society originated from the Congo and due to factors like agriculture and trade in ivory they spread out to the north, east and the south. With slave trade the further scattered out across Africa some running from the slave traders.

    The use of the term "Bantu" in South Africa

    Main article: Bantu speaking peoples of South Africa
    Black South Africans were at times officially called "Bantus" by the apartheid regime. The term is derived from the Zulu term for people "abantu" the plural of "umuntu." Examples of its usage are as follows:
    1. One of South Africa's politicians of recent times General Bantubonke Harrington Holomisa " all the people" who is know as Bantu Holomisa .
    2. The South African apartheid regime, used the term "Bantustan", to refer to the "homelands" (Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and the Ciskei).
    3. The abstract noun Ubuntu is derived regularly from the Nguni noun Umuntu.
    Bibliography

    • J. Desmond Clark, The Prehistory of Africa, Thames and Hudson, 1970
    • April A. Gordon and Donald L. Gordon, Understanding Contemporary Africa, Lynne Riener, London, 1996
    • Kevin Shillington, History of Africa, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1995 (1989)
    See also

    References

    1. <LI id=wp-_note-0>^ The Chronological Evidence for the Introduction of Domestic Stock in Southern Africa <LI id=wp-_note-1>^ A Brief History of Botswana
    2. ^ On Bantu and Khoisan in (Southeastern) Zambia, (in German)

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    Translations: Translations for: Bantu

    Dansk (Danish)
    n. - bantufolket, bantustammen
    adj. - bantu-
    Nederlands (Dutch)
    Bantoe (taal), Bantoe-
    Français (French)
    n. - (Ling) Bantou, Bantous
    adj. - bantou
    Deutsch (German)
    n. - Bantu, (Negroide Gruppe in Mittel und Südafrika)
    adj. - Bantu-
    &#917;&#955;&#955;&#951;&#957;&#953;&#954;&#942; (Greek)
    n. - &#947;&#955;&#974;&#963;&#963;&#945; &#942; &#948;&#953;&#940;&#955;&#949;&#954;&#964;&#959;&#962; &#956;&#960;&#945;&#957;&#964;&#959;&#973;
    adj. - &#964;&#951;&#962; &#947;&#955;&#969;&#963;&#963;&#953;&#954;&#942;&#962; &#959;&#956;&#940;&#948;&#945;&#962; &#956;&#960;&#945;&#957;&#964;&#959;&#973;
    Italiano (Italian)
    bantu
    Português (Portuguese)
    n. - língua (f) dos Bantos
    adj. - banto
    &#1056;&#1091;&#1089;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081; (Russian)
    &#1073;&#1072;&#1085;&#1090;&#1091;
    Español (Spanish)
    n. - bantú
    adj. - bantú, perteneciente a tribu africana
    Svenska (Swedish)
    n. - bantuspråk, medlem av ett bantufolk
    adj. - bantu-

    &#20013;&#25991;&#65288;&#31616;&#20307;&#65289; (Chinese (Simplified))
    &#29677;&#22270;&#20154;, &#29677;&#22270;&#35821;, &#29677;&#22270;&#31995;&#30340;
    &#20013;&#25991;&#65288;&#32321;&#39636;&#65289; (Chinese (Traditional))
    n. - &#29677;&#22294;&#20154;, &#29677;&#22294;&#35486;
    adj. - &#29677;&#22294;&#31995;&#30340;
    &#54620;&#44397;&#50612; (Korean)
    n. - &#48152;&#53804;&#51313;[&#50612;]
    adj. - &#48152;&#53804;&#51313;[&#50612;]&#51032;
    &#26085;&#26412;&#35486; (Japanese)
    n. - &#12496;&#12531;&#12488;&#12453;&#12540;&#26063;, &#12496;&#12531;&#12488;&#12453;&#12540;&#35486;
    adj. - &#12496;&#12531;&#12488;&#12453;&#12540;&#26063;&#12398;
    &#1575;&#1604;&#1593;&#1585;&#1576;&#1610;&#1607; (Arabic)
    &#8207;(&#1575;&#1604;&#1575;&#1587;&#1605;) &#1588;&#1593;&#1608;&#1576; &#1575;&#1604;&#1576;&#1606;&#1578;&#1608; &#1575;&#1608; &#1604;&#1594;&#1575;&#1578;&#1607;&#1605; ( &#1605;&#1606;&#1607;&#1605; &#1575;&#1604;&#1603;&#1601;&#1610;&#1585; &#1608;&#1575;&#1604;&#1586;&#1608;&#1604;&#1608;) (&#1589;&#1601;&#1607;) &#1605;&#1575; &#1610;&#1582;&#1589; &#1575;&#1604;&#1576;&#1606;&#1578;&#1608;&#8207;

    &#1506;&#1489;&#1512;&#1497;&#1514; (Hebrew)
    n. - *&#1489;&#1488;&#1504;&#1496;&#1493; (&#1499;&#1493;&#1513;&#1497;), &#1511;&#1489;&#1493;&#1510;&#1514; &#1513;&#1508;&#1493;&#1514; &#1489;&#1495;&#1510;&#1497;&#1492; &#1492;&#1491;&#1512;&#1493;&#1502;&#1497; &#1513;&#1500; &#1488;&#1508;&#1512;&#1497;&#1511;&#1492;&#8236;
    adj. - *&#1489;&#1488;&#1504;&#1496;&#1493; (&#1499;&#1493;&#1513;&#1497;)&#8236;

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  30. Mzee wa Gumzo

    Mzee wa Gumzo JF-Expert Member

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    Nzokanhyilu,

    Nahisi swali lako linazaa mada mpya.I have answers to it lakini nashauri kuwa tumalize ishu ya jmushi then ishu ya masista itazungumzika.
    AU WAONAJE?
     

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