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Fahamu kuhusu Mabusha (Hydrocele)

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by MziziMkavu, Jun 18, 2011.

  1. MziziMkavu

    MziziMkavu JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Jun 18, 2011
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    Mabusha ni hali ya kujaa maji kwenye mfuko wa pumbu. Hali hii hutokea kunapokuwa na mkusanyiko wa maji kati ya tabaka mbili za utando unaozunguka korodani.

    Inakadiriwa kuwa karibu asilimia moja ya wanaume wote kote duniani huathiriwa na tatizo hili. Kwa hapa nchini, tatizo hili ni maarufu sana maeneo ya mwambao wa Pwani ya Bahari ya Hindi, kiasi cha kuhusishwa na imani kadhaa.

    Mojawapo ya dhana iliyozoeleka miongoni mwa watu wa mwambao ni kuwa mabusha yana uhusiano mkubwa na unywaji wa maji ya madafu. Aidha, tatizo hili limekuwa likichukuliwa na baadhi ya watu kuwa ni hali ya kudhalilisha ingawa kwa wengine huonekana ni hali ya kuwa ‘mzee wa heshima' au ‘umwinyi'.

    Ifahamike pia kuwa, tatizo la mabusha halitokei kwa wanaume watu wazima tu. Watoto wa kiume hususani katika mwaka wa kwanza (infants) pia ni waathirika wakuu wa tatizo hili.

    Kwa kawaida mabusha hayana maumivu na wala hayaleti madhara, isipokuwa kama yatapata uambukizi kwa sababu nyingine yeyote ile, hali inayowafanya wengi wa waathirika, hasa wa mwambao, kuwa wagumu kutafuta ufumbuzi wa tiba.
    Hata hivyo, ni vyema kama mtu ana uvimbe wowote kwenye pumbu zake, kutafuta msaada wa kitabibu ili kuweza kuondoa uwezekano wa kuwepo kwa magonjwa mengine ya sehemu za siri kama vile saratani ya korodani (testicular cancer) n.k.

    Mabusha husababishwa na nini?
    Sababu za kutokea kwa mabusha hutofautiana kati ya watoto wa kiume na wanaume watu wazima.

    Kwa watoto wa kiume
    Kwa watoto wa kiume, mabusha huweza kuanza kutokea kipindi cha ujauzito.

    [​IMG]

    Wakati wa ujauzito, korodani za mtoto wa kiume huwa kwenye tumbo lake kabla ya kushuka taratibu kuelekea kwenye mapumbu. Wakati wa ushukaji huo, kifuko kinachozunguka korodani kinachoitwa processus vaginalishushuka sambamba na kurodani hizo na kufanya korodani kuzungukwa na maji.

    Kwa kawaida, ndani ya muda wa mwaka mmoja, kifuko hiki hufunga na maji hayo yanayozunguka korodani yote hufyonzwa na kurudishwa kwenye tumbo la mtoto. Iwapo baada ya kifuko kufunga na maji yaliyomo kushindwa kufyonzwa kurudishwa kwenye tumbo la mtoto, mtoto hupata busha lijulikanalo kitaalamu kama busha lisilo na mawasiliano (non-communicating hydrocele).

    Hali kadhalika, wakati mwingine inawezekana kifuko kikashindwa kufunga na hivyo maji yakaendelea kujaa ndani ya kifuko kuzunguka korodani. Aina hii ya mabusha kwa watoto ujulikana kama busha lenye mawasiliano (communicating hydrocele).

    Kwa wanaume watu wazima


    mabusha.jpg
    Kwa wanaume watu wazima, mabusha husababishwa na mambo makuu mawili; Kwanza, kitendo chochote kinachochochea tando zinazozunguka korodani kuzalisha maji kwa wingi kuliko kawaida, na njia ya pili ni kupungua kwa ufyonzaji wa maji yanayozunguka korodani kwa sababu ya kuziba kwa mirija ya lymph (blockage of scrotal lymphatic system) au kuziba kwa mishipa ya damu inayosafirisha damu kutoka kwenye pumbu kwenda sehemu nyingine za mwili (blockage of scrotal venous system).

    Ongezeko la uzalishaji wa maji linaweza kutokana na

    • Maambukizi au/na majeraha katika korodani (testicular inflammation auorchitis) au maambukizi katika mshipa ujulikanao kama epididymisyanayoweza kusababishwa na kifua kikuu (tuberculosis) cha makende, au maambukizi yanayosababishwa na vimelea wa filaria (filariasis) wanaosababishwa na kuumwa na mbu aina ya Culex.
    • Kujinyonga kwa korodani (testicular torsion) kunakoweza kuzifanya korodani kutenda kazi zaidi ya kiwango chake (hyperactive testis).
    • Uvimbe katika korodani (testicular tumors) ambao husababisha uzalishaji wa maji kupita kiasi.
    Kupungua kwa ufyonzaji wa maji hutokana na
    • Kufanyiwa upasuaji kipindi cha siku za nyuma katika eneo la kinena, au operesheni ya upandikizaji figo ambazo zinaweza kuathiri mfumo wa lymph na vena na hivyo kupunguza ufyonzaji wa maji kutoka kwenye mapumbu.
    • Kuwahi kufanyiwa tiba ya mionzi kipindi cha nyuma nayo uhusishwa na kutokea kwa mabusha.
    Kwa hapa kwetu Tanzania, kung'atwa na mbu aina ya Culex anayeeneza vimelea vya filaria kunaelezwa kuwa sababu kuu mojawapo inayopelekea kuwepo kwa tatizo la mabusha na matende hususani maeneo ya Pwani na mwambao.

    Dalili za Mabusha
    Katika hatua za awali, mabusha huwa hayana dalili zozote (asymptomatic).
    Hata hivyo, baada ya muda fulani, mapumbu hujaa na uvimbe huweza kuonekana hata kwa nje. Kwa kadiri uvimbe unavyozidi kuongezeka, dalili zifuatazo zaweza kujitokeza pia;

    • Muhusika kujihisi hali ya uzito na kuvuta sehemu za siri kutokana na kujaa na kuongezeka kwa uzito wa mapumbu.
    • Mgonjwa huweza kujihisi hali ya usumbufu na kutojisikia vizuri maeneo ya kinena mpaka mgongoni.
    • Kwa kawaida mabusha hayana maumivu yeyote. Hata hivyo, iwapo mgonjwa ataanza kujihisi maumivu, hiyo ni dalili ya kuwepo kwa uambukizi katika mshipa wa epididymis (acute epididymitis)
    • Uvimbe huwa na tabia ya kupungua iwapo mgonjwa atakaa kitako na huongezeka pindi anaposimama.
    • Iwapo mgonjwa atajisikia homa, kichefuchefu na kutapika, hizo ni dalili za kuwepo kwa uambukizi katika mabusha.
    • Kwa kawaida mabusha hayana muingiliano na uwezo na ufanisi wa utendaji wa ngono. Hata hivyo kuna taarifa tofauti za kitafiti kutoka bara Asia na Afrika Magharibi kuwa mabusha yanaweza kuathiri ufanisi wa ngono na kwa kiasi fulani kusababisha mhemko au msongo wa mawazo kwa muathirika.


    Uchunguzi na Vipimo
    Uchunguzi mzuri wa kitabibu (physical examination) huwezesha kugundua uwepo wa mabusha kwa kiasi kikubwa bila hata kuhitaji vipimo vya ziada. Vipimo uhitajika tu kwa ajili ya kuchunguza chanzo cha mabusha, madhara yaliyoletwa na mabusha au kujua hali ya korodani.
    Vipimo ni pamoja na

    • Kupima damu (Full Blood Count) na mkojo (Urine Analysis) kuchunguza uwepo wa maambukizi kama vile vimelea wafilaria na mengineyo.
    • Ultrasound ya kinena pamoja na mapumbu: Aina hii ya kipimo hufanywa ili kuchunguza uwepo wa matatizo mengine tofauti na mabusha. Matatizo hayo ni kama vile ngiri, uvimbe, kujinyonga kwa korodani (testicular torsion), majeraha katika korodani, damu kuvuja kwenye kwenye korodani (traumatic hemorrhage) au maambukizi.
    Matibabu ya Mabusha
    Kwa watoto wadogo, kwa kawaida mabusha hupotea yenyewe ndani ya mwaka mmoja. Iwapo hayajapotea, mtoto uhitaji kufanyiwa upasuaji kama tiba.
    Kwa wanaume watu wazima, mabusha pia huweza kupona yenyewe bila kuhitaji tiba. Iwapo mabusha hayajapotea na yanamletea mgonjwa usumbufu (discomfort) au hali mbaya ya kiumbo (disfigurement) hayana budi kufanyiwa upasuaji ili kuyaondoa.

    Njia za tiba ni:


    Fahamu kuhusu Mabusha.jpg



    • Upasuaji: Upasuaji wa mabusha huweza kufanyika bila ya mgonjwa kuhitaji kulazwa (outpatient). Madhara yanayoweza kutokea wakati wa upasuaji wa mabusha ni pamoja na damu kuganda (blood clots), maambukizi au majeraha kwenye korodani. Hii ndiyo njia maarufu zaidi na ya kuaminika ya matibabu ya mabusha duniani kote.

    • Kunyonya maji kwa kutumia sindano maalum (Needle aspiration): Njia nyingine inayotumika kutibu mabusha ni kuyanyonya maji kwa kutumia sindano maalum (needle aspiration). Hata hivyo njia hii haitumiki sana sehemu nyingi duniani kwa sasa kwa sababu maji ya mabusha huwa yana tabia ya kujirudia baada ya muda mfupi hata kama yatanyonywa.
    Baadhi ya matabibu hupendelea kudunga dawa maalum za kuzuia maji yasijae tena (sclerosing agents) mara baada ya kunyonya na kuyaondoa maji yote.

    Njia hii ya kunyonya maji ya mabusha, hufaa zaidi kwa wagonjwa wasioweza kuhimili upasuaji. Madhara yanayoweza kusababishwa na tiba ya namna hii ni pamoja na maambukizi na maumivu kwenye korodani.

    Hata hivyo wakati mwingine, bila kujali ni tiba gani imetumika, mabusha huweza kujirudia baada ya matibabu.

    Madhara ya Mabusha

    Kwa kawaida mabusha hayana madhara yeyote. Aidha mabusha hayawezi kuathiri uwezo wa mtu kuzaa. Hata hivyo mabusha yanaweza kuleta madhara iwapo tu kama yakiambatana na magonjwa mengine kwenye korodani.

    Kwa mfano, kama mabusha yataambatana na maambukizi (testicular infection) au uvimbe kwenye korodani (testicular tumor), yanaweza kusababisha kupungua kwa uzalishaji na utendaji kazi wa mbegu za kiume (sperms) na kupelekea tatizo la ugumba kwa wanaume.

    Hali kadhalika, iwapo sehemu ya utumbo mkubwa au mdogo imebanwa katika upenyo fulani kwenye sehemu ya ukuta wa tumbo, huweza kusababisha ngiri (strangulated hernia), hali ambayo ni hatari kama isipotibiwa haraka.

    Chanzo: Fahamu kuhusu Mabusha (Hydrocele)

     
  2. KAKA A TAIFA

    KAKA A TAIFA JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Jun 18, 2011
    Joined: Apr 27, 2011
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    Definition
    A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sack along the spermatic cord within the scrotum.
    Alternative Names
    Processus vaginalis; Patent processus vaginalis



    Causes, incidence, and risk factors
    Hydroceles are common in newborn infants.
    During normal development, the testicles descend down a tube from the abdomen into the scrotum. Hydroceles result when this tube fails to close. Fluid drains from the abdomen through the open tube. The fluid builds up in the scrotum, where it becomes trapped. This causes the scrotum to become swollen.
    Hydroceles normally go away a few months after birth, but their appearance may worry new parents. Occasionally, a hydrocele may be associated with an inguinal hernia.
    Hydroceles may also be caused by inflammation or injury of the testicle or epididymis, or by fluid or blood blockage within the spermatic cord. This type of hydrocele is more common in older men.



    Symptoms
    The main symptom is a painless, swollen testicle , which feels like a water balloon. A hydrocele may occur on one or both sides.



    Signs and tests
    During a physical exam, the doctor usually finds an swollen scrotum that is not tender. Often, the testicle cannot be felt because of the surrounding fluid. The size of the fluid-filled sack can sometimes be increased and decreased by pressure to the abdomen or the scrotum.
    If the size of the fluid collection varies, it is more likely to be associated with an inguinal hernia.
    Hydroceles can be easily demonstrated by shining a flashlight (transillumination) through the enlarged portion of the scrotum. If the scrotum is full of clear fluid, as in a hydrocele, the scrotum will light up.
    An ultrasound may be done to confirm the diagnosis.



    Treatment
    Hydroceles are usually not dangerous, and they are usually only treated when they cause discomfort or embarrassment, or if they are large enough to threaten the testicle's blood supply.
    One option is to remove the fluid in the scrotum with a needle, a process called aspiration. However, surgery is generally preferred. Aspiration may be the best alternative for people who have certain surgical risks.
    Sclerosing (thickening or hardening) medications may be injected after aspiration to close off the opening. This helps prevent the future build up of fluid.
    Hydroceles associated with an inguinal hernia should be repaired surgically as quickly as possible. Hydroceles that do not go away on their own over a period of months should be evaluated for possible surgery. A surgical procedure, called a hydrocelectomy, is often performed to correct a hydrocele.



    Expectations (prognosis)
    Generally, a simple hydrocele goes away without surgery. If surgery is necessary, it is a simple procedure for a skilled surgeon, and usually has an excellent outcome.



    Complications
    Complications may occur from hydrocele treatment.
    Risks related to hydrocele surgery may include:
    • Blood clots
    • Infection
    • Injury to the scrotal tissue or structures
    Risks related to aspiration and sclerosing may include:
    • Infection
    • Fibrosis
    • Mild-to-moderate pain in the scrotal area
    • Return of the hydrocele
    Calling your health care provider
    Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of hydrocele (to rule out other causes of a testicle lump).
    Acute pain in the scrotum or testicles is a surgical emergency. If enlargement of the scrotum is associated with acute pain, seek medical attention immediately.



    Illustrations and Images
    [​IMG]
    Male reproductive anatomy


    [​IMG]
    Hydrocele







    Causes, incidence, and risk factors
    Hydroceles are common in newborn infants.
    During normal development, the testicles descend down a tube from the abdomen into the scrotum. Hydroceles result when this tube fails to close. Fluid drains from the abdomen through the open tube. The fluid builds up in the scrotum, where it becomes trapped. This causes the scrotum to become swollen.
    Hydroceles normally go away a few months after birth, but their appearance may worry new parents. Occasionally, a hydrocele may be associated with an inguinal hernia.
    Hydroceles may also be caused by inflammation or injury of the testicle or epididymis, or by fluid or blood blockage within the spermatic cord. This type of hydrocele is more common in older men.
    Symptoms
    The main symptom is a painless, swollen testicle , which feels like a water balloon. A hydrocele may occur on one or both sides.



    Signs and tests
    During a physical exam, the doctor usually finds an swollen scrotum that is not tender. Often, the testicle cannot be felt because of the surrounding fluid. The size of the fluid-filled sack can sometimes be increased and decreased by pressure to the abdomen or the scrotum.
    If the size of the fluid collection varies, it is more likely to be associated with an inguinal hernia.
    Hydroceles can be easily demonstrated by shining a flashlight (transillumination) through the enlarged portion of the scrotum. If the scrotum is full of clear fluid, as in a hydrocele, the scrotum will light up.
    An ultrasound may be done to confirm the diagnosis.



    Treatment
    Hydroceles are usually not dangerous, and they are usually only treated when they cause discomfort or embarrassment, or if they are large enough to threaten the testicle's blood supply.
    One option is to remove the fluid in the scrotum with a needle, a process called aspiration. However, surgery is generally preferred. Aspiration may be the best alternative for people who have certain surgical risks.
    Sclerosing (thickening or hardening) medications may be injected after aspiration to close off the opening. This helps prevent the future build up of fluid.
    Hydroceles associated with an inguinal hernia should be repaired surgically as quickly as possible. Hydroceles that do not go away on their own over a period of months should be evaluated for possible surgery. A surgical procedure, called a hydrocelectomy, is often performed to correct a hydrocele.



    Expectations (prognosis)
    Generally, a simple hydrocele goes away without surgery. If surgery is necessary, it is a simple procedure for a skilled surgeon, and usually has an excellent outcome.
     
  3. A

    Abdson Member

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    Jaman kuna tetesi eti mtu akinywa maji ya madafu anapata mabusha je ni kweli?
     
  4. B

    Bongoclever Member

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    Ehnhee! Abson,umegusa sehemu nyeti sana...Kama unataka uwe na busha kama Matikitimaji ya bukoba jaribu kunywa maji ya madafu!
     
  5. A

    Abdson Member

    #5
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    Hiv kumbe ni kweli heeee!
     
  6. B

    Bongoclever Member

    #6
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    Ni kwel! Huku ktaa che2 kuna mdngi anabusha mpaka noma...akiwa anafanya tendo la ndoa na mke wake ni fujo 2pu,coz lile busha linakuwa linampiga mkewe *******i paa! Utafikir wanapgana vbao?
     
  7. A

    Abdson Member

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    Sasa hizo **** nadhani ni makalio eh
     
  8. N

    Nonda JF-Expert Member

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  9. N

    Nonda JF-Expert Member

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  10. N

    Nonda JF-Expert Member

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  11. N

    Nonda JF-Expert Member

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    Ukisoma hapa huenda ukaanza kuabudu mnazi na kila zao lake. Kuanzia maji ya dafu, nazi, maji ya nazi, mafuta ya nazi.

    Benefit Of Coconut Water ninashawishika kujaribu.
     
  12. N

    Nonda JF-Expert Member

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    Mkuu hakuna ukweli katika hilo. Ni sawa na imani potofu ya kupata utajiri kutokana na kuua albino.
     
  13. Father of All

    Father of All JF-Expert Member

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    Ujinga kweli mzigo. Elephantiasis wapi na wapi na mabusha? Mbona wanaoeneza mabusha ni mbu na si maji ya nazi? Wanangu jitahidi mtumie muda wenu kujisomea badala ya kutoa hoja zinazodhihirisha ukihiyo na kupitwa na mambo. Naungana na mchangiaji aliyesema ukijua umuhimu wa maji ya dafu utaanza kuabudia minazi. Kesho atatokea mtu awambieni kuwa ukimwi unasababishwa na mbu mtaamini.
     
  14. S

    Short white Senior Member

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    siyo kweli!
     
  15. p

    pilau JF-Expert Member

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    Haiiniingii akilini kabisa na inanikera sana kwa nini baba mtu mzima na akili timamu unatembea na Busha hutaki kulipasua..............
     
  16. R

    Rohongumu JF-Expert Member

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    kwetu pwani heshima Hii kitu siyo kama unavyofikiri.
     
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