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Factors affecting health

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by Karata, Jun 17, 2012.

  1. K

    Karata JF-Expert Member

    #1
    Jun 17, 2012
    Joined: May 1, 2011
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    It is quite true that environment has a direct impact on those living in it and many diseases are the outcome of man's maladjustment to his environment. The factors, which affect human health and cause disease, can be dividing into two categories:

    1. Intrinsic or Internal Factors.
    2. Extrinsic or External Factors.

    The factors such as malfunctioning of the body parts, hormonal imbalances, malfunctioning of immune system and genetic disorders, which exist within the human body, are called Intrinsic Factors. The disease caused by intrinsic factors is called organic diseases or metabolic diseases. Some examples of diseases caused by intrinsic factors are: Heart attack, Kidney failure, Cataract, Diabetes etc. The disease caused by intrinsic factors can be cured by proper medical treatment.

    The factors, such as malnutrition, disease causing microorganisms, environmental pollutants use of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics, which exist outside the human body, are called Extrinsic Factors. Some examples of disease caused by extrinsic factors are Kwashiorkor, Goitre, Malaria, Cholera, Tetanus etc. The diseases caused by extrinsic factors can be cured

    1. by providing wholesome food,
    2. by providing clean environment,
    3. by social remedies which encourage good habits.

    There are some ailments caused by less common extrinsic factors, for example bone fracture after falling from height, frost-bite (prolonged exposure to extreme cold weather), heat-stroke(prolonged exposure to intense hot sun light). These ailments are caused by accidents and are considered as emergencies.

    Now let us discuss some common intrinsic and extrinsic factors and the disease caused by them.
    Some of the factors, which increase the risk of cancer, are:
    Smoking: Tobacco smoke is a proven cause of lung cancer.
    Exposure to high energy radiations such as X-rays, Gamma rays can cause skin cancer and leukaemia.
    Some viruses are also believed to cause cancer.

    Many chemicals applied to skin, inhaled or taken by mouth are also known to cause cancer. These chemicals, which can cause cancer, are known as carcinogenic. Carcinogenic agents in foods may be natural substances or they can be chemicals (food additives) which are deliberately added to food as flavouring agent, as colouring agent, as sweetener as a preservative.

    Cancerous growths or tumours can be treated only at early stages. Cancerous growths in advanced stages often result in death. Let's today end up here, until next time.
     
  2. gfsonwin

    gfsonwin JF-Expert Member

    #2
    Jun 17, 2012
    Joined: Apr 12, 2012
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    thanks kwa somo zuri sana. but nina maswali haya kwako, pathogenic MOS,comes in two different ways there are those which we acquire from the environment and these are many, and there are those which originates from the body itself basing on there origin how which one poses greater health risk? and why?
     
  3. K

    Karata JF-Expert Member

    #3
    Jun 17, 2012
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    Jibu la swali lako linategemea na sehemu ulipo, kama sisi tuliopo kwenye dunia ya tatu (developing countries) magonjwa ambayo acquired ni magonjwa yanayotumaliza kwa kasi na ni magonjwa hatari sana, kwa mfano HIV, milipuko ya magonjwa ya kipindupindu (Cholera) (water borne diseases), malaria, kifua kikuu (TB) n.k. ndo magonjwa yanayotumaliza kwa sababu ya umaskini wetu (Vicious circle of Poverty). Aidha, kwa nchi zilizoendelea, nchi za dunia ya kwanza, magonjwa ambayo yameoriginate from the body itself ndiyo yanayowasumbua sana, magonjwa kama ya kisukari, magonjwa ya shinikizo kuu la damu, saratani za aina mbali mbali (ingwa saratani ata kwenye nchi maskini kwa sasa zimeshika kasi kwa sababu ya external factors mbali mbali, kama vile environmental pollution, magonjwa ya maambukizi (HIV, Hepatitis,papiloma virus) kunakosababishwa na ngono zembe, watu kupewa damu chafu n.k.

    Nawasilisha.
     
  4. gfsonwin

    gfsonwin JF-Expert Member

    #4
    Jun 18, 2012
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    Karata thanks a million but hapo nina maswali mengi sana juu ya hiki kitu manake reseach zilizopo hazituonyesh uhalisia na pia magonjwa yasiyokuwa na maambukizi yamekuwa kwa kasi ya ajabu. environmental pollution imechangia kwa kiasi kikubwasana plus environment toxicology na hapo ndipo penye shida sana manake kwa sasa hatujui tule nini kwa wakati gani na usalama wake uko wapi sas je nini kifanyike hasa kwa sisi tuloko huku dunia ya tatu, ukijumlisha kuwa lishe yetu ni mbaya na uwezo wa kifedha ni mdogo na mazingira yanayotuathiri siyo sisi tunao haribu bali hao walioko huko magharibi na pia mazingira ya kufanyia kazi ni mabaya?

    pia sijui kama real you as heath practictioners huwa mnaongelea maswala ya occupational health manake jaman wafanyakazi wa viwandani are prone to cancerious and chemical pneumonitis at large. nimejaribu kutembelea viwanda baadhi achilia mbali safety gears but working environment siyo conducive kabisa, furans and dioxins plus pcbs zinaua watu.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Jan 4, 2016
  5. K

    Karata JF-Expert Member

    #5
    Jun 20, 2012
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    Mkuu kwa kweli hali ni mbaya sana, Magonjwa yasiyoambukiza (Non communicable diseases) yameshika kasi kweli kweli, watu wengi sasa wanapoteza maisha kwa magonjwa haya (NCDs). Magonjwa ya moyo especially Hypertensive Heart diseases, Coronary arterial Diseases, Ischemic Cardiac disease kwa watu wazima na Congenital cardiac diseases kwa watoto yanaondoa watanzania kila kukicha. Magonjwa ya saratani nayo yameshika kasi, saratani ya kizazi na matiti kwa kina mama na saratani ya tezi dume kwa kina Baba wenye umri wa zaidi ya miaka 50 yameshika kasi. Ugonjwa wa kisukari na magonjwa yake pamoja na magonjwa ya figo (Renal failure) nayo ndo usiseme.

    Serikali na donors wameelekeza nguvu zote kwenye magonjwa ya kuambukiza tu, kama vile HIV, TB na Malaria huku fedha zinazotengwa na Serikali na donor kila mwaka kupambana na magonjwa haya ni nyingi ukicompare na fedha zinazotegwa kupambana na magonjwa yasiyoambukiza (NCDs). Serikali na Taasisi zake wala NGOs hazionyeshi kabisa nia ya dhati ya kupambana pamoja na kuaddress ukubwa wa magonjwa yasiyoambukiza nchini. Magonjwa haya sasa ni zaidi ya HIV maana NCDs yanaua haraka wakati HIV sasa umekuwa ugonjwa chronic ambao hauui haraka.

    Magonjwa haya yamekuwa ni mzigo mkubwa kwa wananchi maskini maana matibabu yake ni ya gharama kubwa sana, zamani tulikuwa tunayaita "magonjwa ya matajiri" kwa mfano, matibabu ya saratani ni ghali sana (gharama za Chemotherapy zinaweza kufikia USD 10000 kwa mzunguko mmoja wa chemotherapy), Gharama ya matibabu ya saratani za damu (Bone marrow transplant ) yanafikia USD 35000 mpaka USD 40000. Kwahiyo, watu maskini wasiokuwa na uwezo wanapoteza maisha kila kukicha.
    Ni kweli katika nchi yetu hatuna data (research) iliyofanyika kuonyesha magnitude/ukubwa wa tatizo nchini, lakini unaweza kufanya utafiti mdogo kwa kwenda japo siku moja katika hospitali ya Saratani Ocean road ili ukajionee ungezeko kubwa la wagonjwa wa saratani.

    Nini kifanyike?

    Kwa mtazamo wangu napenda kushauri mambo yafuatayo:

    1. SERA- Kuwe na Sera mahususi kuhusu NCDs ambayo itakuwa DIRA itakayotuongoza katika vita dhidi ya NCDs, sera ambayo itaweka bayanamasuala mbali mbali katika harakati za Taifa kupambana na kudhibiti NCDs, mfano, ushirikizwaji wa Sekta zote katika vita dhidi ya NCDs

    2. ELIMU- Elimu ndo msingi katika mapambano ya kuthibiti NCDs, Serikali na Taasisi sizizo za Serikali zitoe Elimu kwa umma kuhusu NCDs. Hii itacreat awareness katika jamii kwa ujumla na kufanya wananchi wengi wayatambue magonjwa haya na jinsi ya kujikinga nayo (preventive is better than cure). Elimu ianze kutolewa kuanzia kwenye ngazi ya shule za msingi.

    3. MSUKUMO WA KISIASA NA KISERIKALI NA UONGOZI- Kunatakiwa kuwepo na msukumo na dhamira ya kweli kunakoambatana na vitendo kutoka Serikalini na wanasiasa ili kuongeza vita dhidi ya NCDs. Ni muhimu pia uwajibikaji kisiasa na Kiserikali katika vita dhidi ya NCDs uimarishwe katika ngazi zote.

    4. Nitaendelea siku nyingine………
     
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