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Contraceptive Used in Africa May Double Risk of H.I.V.

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by Indume Yene, Oct 4, 2011.

  1. Indume Yene

    Indume Yene JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 4, 2011
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    The most popular contraceptive for women in eastern and southern Africa, a hormone shot given every three months, appears to double the risk the women will become infected with H.I.V., according to a large study published Monday. And when it is used by H.I.V.-positive women, their male partners are twice as likely to become infected than if the women had used no contraception.The findings potentially present an alarming quandary for women in Africa. Hundreds of thousands of them suffer injuries, bleeding, infections and even death in childbirth from unintended pregnancies. Finding affordable and convenient contraceptives is a pressing goal for international health authorities.
    But many countries where pregnancy rates are highest are also ravaged by H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS. So the evidence suggesting that the injectable contraceptive has biological properties that may make women and men more vulnerable to H.I.V. infection is particularly troubling.
    Injectable hormones are very popular. About 12 million women between the ages of 15 and 49 in sub-Saharan Africa, roughly 6 percent of all women in that age group, use them. In the United States, it is 1.2 million, or 3 percent of women using contraception. While the study involved only African women, scientists said biological effects would probably be the same for all women. But they emphasized that concern was greatest in Africa because the risk of H.I.V. transmission from heterosexual sex was so much higher there than elsewhere.
    "The best contraception today is injectable hormonal contraception because you don't need a doctor, it's long-lasting, it enables women to control timing and spacing of birth without a lot of fuss and travel," said Isobel Coleman, director of the women and foreign policy program at the Council on Foreign Relations. "If it is now proven that these contraceptions are helping spread the AIDS epidemic, we have a major health crisis on our hands."
    The study, which several experts said added significant heft to previous research while still having some limitations, has prompted the World Health Organization to convene a meeting in January to consider if evidence is now strong enough to advise women that the method may increase their risk of getting or transmitting H.I.V.
    "We are going to be re-evaluating W.H.O.'s clinical recommendations on contraceptive use," said Mary Lyn Gaffield, an epidemiologist in the World Health Organization's department of reproductive health and research. Before the meeting, scientists will review research concerning hormonal contraceptives and women's risk of acquiring H.I.V., transmitting it to men, and the possibility (not examined in the new study) that hormonal contraceptives accelerate H.I.V.'s severity in infected women.
    "We want to make sure that we warn when there is a real need to warn, but at the same time we don't want to come up with a hasty judgment that would have far-reaching severe consequences for the sexual and reproductive health of women," she said. "This is a very difficult dilemma."
    The study, led by researchers at the University of Washington and published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, involved 3,800 couples in Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. In each couple, either the man or the woman was already infected with H.I.V. Researchers followed most couples for two years, had them report their contraception methods, and tracked whether the uninfected partner contracted H.I.V. from the infected partner, said Dr. Jared Baeten, an author and an epidemiologist and infectious disease specialist.
    The research was presented at an international AIDS conference this summer, but has now gained traction, scientists said, with publication in a major peer-reviewed journal.
    The manufacturer of the branded version of the injectable, Depo-Provera, is Pfizer, which declined to comment on the study, saying officials had not yet read it. The study's authors said the injectables used by the African women were probably generic versions.
    The study found that women using hormonal contraception became infected at a rate of 6.61 per 100 person-years, compared with 3.78 for those not using that method. Transmission of H.I.V. to men occurred at a rate of 2.61 per 100 person-years for women using hormonal contraception compared with 1.51 for those who did not.
    While at least two other rigorous studies have found that injectable contraceptives increase the risk of women's acquiring H.I.V., the new research has some strengths over previous work, said Charles Morrison, senior director of clinical sciences at FHI 360, a nonprofit organization whose work includes researching the intersection of family planning and H.I.V.

    Source: New York Times.
     
  2. Kinyungu

    Kinyungu JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 4, 2011
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    Wallah tutakwisha. Na jinsi tusivyopenda kujishughulisha kutafiti haya madawa wanayotuletea hawa wazungu lazima tuangamie.
     
  3. Ozzie

    Ozzie JF-Expert Member

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    Watu wengi wanatumia contraceptives ili kuepukana na unwanted pregnancies. So wakishajidunga hizo sindano, hawawi na hofu tena na ngono zembe, so inakuwa ni pekupeku mwanzo mpaka mwisho; hivyo kuwa katika risk kubwa ya kupata HIV.
     
  4. eliakeem

    eliakeem JF-Expert Member

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    Hilo nalo neno.....lakini utafiti unaonesha kuwa kemikali za dawa hizo zinafanya mwili wa mtu uambukizwe virusi vya ukimwi kwa urahisi zaidi....
     
  5. Katavi

    Katavi Platinum Member

    #5
    Oct 5, 2011
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    Hata kinga (kondomu) ikitumika??? Hapa sijaelewa......
     
  6. feis buku

    feis buku JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 5, 2011
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    Dr.riwa ya kweli haya au utabibu ya dr.manyuki wa tandika??
     
  7. m

    morio JF-Expert Member

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    Oct 5, 2011
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    Haya macontaceptives yana madhara mengi sana, ukianza na kuna wanawake wanakuwa na mavitambi utadhani wajawazito as zina waongeza uzito sana uncontrollably, pia baada ya matumizi ya muda mrefu wakati unahitaji mtt unaweza kumkosa kabisa au ukumpata anazaliwa na mtindio wa ubongo, kuna dada mmoja alizaa akiwa sec scholl akaa wee like 10 yrs akapata mme akaolewa mtt wa ndoa wa kwanza alikuwa taahira kabisa as alikuwa anatumia contaceptives for all yrs alizokuwa hajaolewa, wa pili kuzaliwa ndani ya ndoa alikuwa yuko poa so Dr akasema inaweza ikawa ni reason. Pia nasikia vidonge vinawafanya wanawake sooo wet, ingawa inaweza kuzuia michubuko lakini ile issue pakiwa too wet ladha inapungua.
    Katika mzunguko wa mwanamke kuna a number of safe dayz yaani binadamu mpaka tukomae na zile zile za uzazi ambazo hazizidi 4 per month!
     
  8. Nyalotsi

    Nyalotsi JF-Expert Member

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    pathophysiology please! Most women dont care about hiv,hata ucpovaa condom utackia NAOGOPA MIMBA,! so wakishatumia hizo dawa wanajiona wako safe kuruka vile watakavyo.
     
  9. Mzee Mwanakijiji

    Mzee Mwanakijiji Platinum Member

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    Oct 5, 2011
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    Matumizi ya njia za mpango wa uzazi zenye kubadilisha vihemuko (hormones) ambazo zimekuwa zikitumiwa na wanawake wengi katika maeneo ya Afrika chini ya Jangwa la Sahara zimeonekana kuonesha uwezekano wa kuongeza uwezekano wa maambukizi ya virusi vya HIV-1 ambavyo husababisha ugonjwa wa UKIMWI. Kwa mujibu wa utafiti uliochapishwa wanawake wenye kutumia njia hizo za mpango wa uzazi kwa kujidunga sindano wana uwezekano wa karibu mara mbili kuweza kuambukizwa HIV kulinganisha na wanawake ambao hawatumii njia hizo. Vile vile utafiti huo unaonesha pia kuwa kama ni mwanamke ndiye ameshambukizwa basi anaongeza pia uwezekano wa kumuambukiza mwenza wake.
    Utafiti huo umefanywa na wataalamu toka Vyuo Vikuu vya Washington na Seattle huko Marekani. Utafiti huo umehusisha karibu watu 4000 huku ukifanyika katika nchi saba za kiafrika Tanzania ikiwa ni miongoni mwao. Nchi nyingine zilizohusishwa katika utafiti huo ni pamoja na Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, na Afrika ya Kusini. Nyingine ni Uganda na Zambia.

    Soma zaidi pia: Fikra Pevu | Kisima cha busara!
     
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