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Bunge la Katiba ni Lipi?

Discussion in 'Jukwaa la Sheria (The Law Forum)' started by Albedo, Jun 20, 2010.

  1. Albedo

    Albedo JF-Expert Member

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    Jun 20, 2010
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    Juzi Serikali "ilishinda" rufaa iliyokata dhidi ya Mgombea Binafsi, katika moja ya Hoja za Serikali (na kwa Mujibu wa Philip Marmo) ni Kwamba Mahakama Kuu Haiwezi Kusikikiliza Kesi ya Kikatiba bali Chombo Kinachoweza kufanya hivyo ni Mahakama ya Katiba ambayo haipo kwa Mujibu wa Marmo na Serikali Mahakama hiyo ya Katiba Haipo na haijawahi kuwepo, Mahamaka iliamua kulirudisha Suala hilo kwa Bunge ambako Marmo tena nilimnukuu kwenye Vyombo vya Habari akisema Bunge letu halina Uwezo wa Kufanya Marekebisho ya Katiba na Chombo chenye Uwezo wa Kufanya hivyo ni Bunge la Katiba ambalo kwa Mujibu wa Marmo halipo na Ngumu sana kuwepo. Sasa wandugu naomba kuuliza Maswali yafuatayo

    Nianze na kwa Mahakama ya Katiba

    1: Mahakama ya katiba ni kitu gani?
    2: Je ni Kweli kunapaswa kuwepo kwa Mahakama hiyo?
    3: Kama inapaswa kuwepo kwa nini haipo?
    4: Kama ni kweli ni Chombo gani kina Mamlaka ya Kuunda hiyo Mahakama na Majaji wake wanateuliwa nani?

    Nikija kwenye Bunge la Katiba

    1: Bunge la Katiba ni nini?
    2: Je ni kweli hilo Bunge linapaswa kuwepo?
    3: Wabunge wake wanachaguliwa au wanateuliwa?
    4: Je ni kweli kwamba Bunge letu la sasa ( Ambalo sio Bunge la Katiba kwa Mujibu wa Mh. Marmo ambaye ni mwanasheria kitaaluma) haliwezi kutengua kipengele chochote cha katiba

    Kwenye Swali la nne, Kama Bunge letu halina uwezo huo wa kurekebisha katiba

    a: Ni Bunge gani ambacho kimekuwa kikifanya marekebisho ya Katiba yetu tokea 1977?
    b: Kama ni Bunge hili ( ambalo si la Katiba) ndilo limekuwa likifanya Marekebisho hayo, Je Marmo atakubaliana na Mimi kwamba Marekesho yote (Likiwemo la kuchomeka kipengele kinachomtaka Mtu kuwa mwanachama waChama ili achaguliwe) ni Batili maana yamefanywa na Chombo ( Bunge ambalo si la katiba) na haikna uwezo huo

    Jamani mimi si Mtaalamu wa Sheria ila nitafurahi mkinitoa katika Mkanganyiko huu

    Asante
     
  2. Kasheshe

    Kasheshe JF-Expert Member

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    Jun 20, 2010
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    Nadhani Bunge la katiba, ni kikao rasmi cha kuzungumzia katiba... haimanishi sio wabunge hao hao.
     
  3. Buchanan

    Buchanan JF Diamond Member

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    Jun 20, 2010
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    Kabla ya kutungwa kwa Katiba ya Kudumu BUNGE LA KATIBA lilitakiwa liteuliwe na Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania kwa kushauriana na Rais wa Zanzibar kulingana na Articles of the Union: Article (vii) inasema kama ifuatavyo:
    (vii) The President of the united Republic: in agreement with the Vice-President
    who is head of the Executive in Zanzibar shall-
    (a) ...
    (b) Summon a Constituent Assembly composed of Representatives from
    Tanganyika and from Zanzibar in such numbers as they may determine to
    meet within one year of the commencement of the union for the purpose
    of considering the proposals of the Commission aforesaid and to adopt
    a Constitution for the united Republic.

    Nasikia hilo Bunge la Katiba halijaitishwa mpaka leo kulingana na Hati za Muungano! Je, Katiba ya Mwaka 1977 ilitungwa vipi? Ni kwa kubadili Bunge lililoluwepo wakati huo kuwa "Bunge la Katiba."
    Hata hivyo utangulizi wa Katiba hiyo ya Mwaka 1977 unazungumzia "BUNGE MAALUM" kwa maneno yafuatayo: "KWA HIYO, BASI, KATIBA HII IMETUNGWA NA BUNGE MAALUM LA JAMHURI YA MUUNGANO WA TANZANIA, kwa niaba ya Wananchi, kwa madhumuni ya kujenga jamii kama hiyo, na pia kwa ajili ya kuhakikisha kwamba Tanzania inaongozwa na Serikali yenye kufuata misingi ya demokrasia na ujamaa."

    Sijajua uhalali wa kisheria wa kugeuza Bunge la Kawaida kuwa Bunge la Katiba!

    Kuhusu Mahakama ya Katiba, kisheria Mahakama hiyo haipo. Japo lolote la Kikatiba hushughulikiwa na Mahakama Kuu kulingana na Katiba na Sheria zilizopo.

    Marmo alipodai kwamba Bunge la Katiba liitishwe inawezekana alimaanisha kuwa ni Bunge la sasa kujigeuza kuwa Bunge la Katiba! Kama nilivyosema tangu mwanzo sijajua ni namna gani kisheria Bunge linajibadili kuwa Bunge la Katiba!
     
  4. Albedo

    Albedo JF-Expert Member

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    Jun 21, 2010
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    Asante sana Buchanan kwa Shule yako Nzuri! Kwa hiyo mwaka 2005 wakati Serikali inafanya mabadiliko ya Katiba, Je Bunge hilo la katiba lilikaa! Asante Mkuu
     
  5. ngoshwe

    ngoshwe JF-Expert Member

    #5
    Jun 21, 2010
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    Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania inatajwa katika Ibara ya 125 ya Katiba ya Jamhuri wa Muungano ya Mwaka 1977.

    Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba inaundwa na nusu ya jumla ya wajumbe watakao teuliwa na Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano na nusu nyingine ya jumla hiyowatakaoteuliwa na Serikali ya Mapinduzi Zanzibar (Katiba haijataja ni nani Mamlaka ya Uteuzi wa wajumbe) .

    Mamlaka yake: Kusikiliza shauri lililotolewa mbele yake, kutoa uamuzi wa usuluhishi, juu ya suala lolote linalohusika na tafsiri ya Katiba ya “Jamhuri ya Muungano” iwapo tafsiri hiyo au utekelezaji wake unabishaniwa kati ya “Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano” na “Serikali ya Mapinduzi Zanzibar” (Ibara ya 126).

    Katika kutekeleza kazi yake, Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba haitakuwa na mamlaka ya kuchunguza au kubadilisha uamuzi wa Mahakama Kuu au uamuzi wa Mahakama ya Rufani uliotolewa kwa mujibu wa masharti ya ibara za 83 na ibara ya 117 ya Katiba. Ibara ya 83 inahusu uamuzi kama mtu ni mbunge halali au sivyo na Ibara ya 117 inahusu mamalaka ya jumla ya Mahakama ya Rufani.

    Katiba haipo wazi iwapo Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba inaweza au haiwezi kubadilisha uamuzi wa “Mahakama Kuu ya Zanzibar” kuhusu jambo lolote.

    Ibara ya 128(4) inaeleza yafuatayo ambayo ni masuala magumu kuyatafsiri kwani hayajatekelezwa na Bunge mapka sasa:

    " (4) Bunge laweza kutunga sheria kwa ajili ya kuweka masharti kuhusu utaratibu wa uchaguzi wa Mwenyekiti wa
    Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba, utartibu wa kupeleka shauri mbele ya Mahakama hiyo, utaratibu wa kuendesha shauri katika Mahakama na utaratibu wa kuwasilisha Serikalini uamuzi wa Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba:
    Isipokuwa kwamba iwapo shauri lolote litafikishwa mbele ya Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba wakati hakuna sheria yoyote ya aina iliyoelezwa katika ibara hii ndogo, basi shauri litasikilizwa na kuamuliwa kwa kufuata utaratibu utakaowekwa na Mahakama yenyewe kabla ya kuanza kusikiliza shauri, au iwapo Wajumbe wa Mahakama watashindwa kukubaliana juu ya utaratibu huo, basi shauri litasikilizwa na kuamuliwa kwa kufuata utaratibu utakaoamuliwa na Serikali ya Jamhuri ya Muungano kwa kushirikiana na Serikali ya Zanzibar.

    Japo zipo kero za wazi za muungano, Mahakama hii haijawahi kuundwa tokea kufikiwa kwa makubaliano ya Muungano. Inaonekana kuwa, , kuundwa kwa Mahakama hii ni kama kuruhusu uwezekano wa wazi wa kuvunjika kwa muungano. Serikali imekuwa ikijiadhari sana kutojaribu kutenda kosa hili la kuwa na Mahakama ya Katiba hapa nchini.

    Maoni:

    Kwa mujibu wa ibara ya 125 ya Katiba, si kweli kuwa Mahakama ya Katiba ndio iliyopaswa kusikiliza kesi ya aina kama iliyofunguliwa na Mtikila kuhusu suala la Mgombea Binafsi. Kesi hii haihusu tafsri ya Katiba kama Ibara ya 125 inavyoeleza kuhusu majukumu ya Mahakama ya Katiba.

    Aidha, Ibara ya 30 (3), (4) NA (5) za Katiba zabainisha:

    (3) Mtu yeyote anayedai kuwa sharti lolote katika Sehemu hii ya Sura hii au katika sheria yoyote inayohusu haki yake au
    wajibu kwake, limevunjwa, linavunjwa au inaelekea litavunjwa na mtu yeyote popote katika Jamhuri ya Muungano, anawezakufungua shauri katika Mahakama Kuu.

    " (4) Bila ya kuathiri masharti mengineyo yaliyomo katika Katiba hii, Mahakama Kuu itakuwa na mamlaka ya kusikiliza kwa mara ya kwanza na kuamua shauri lolote lililoletwa mbele yake kwa kufuata ibara hii;.........."


    5) Endapo katika shauri lolote inadaiwa kwamba sheria yoyote iliyotungwa au hatua yoyote iliyochukuliwa na Serikali au mamlaka nyingine inafuta au inakatiza haki, uhuru na wajibu muhimu zitokanazo na ibara ya 12 hadi 29 za Katiba hii, na Mahakama Kuu inaridhika kwamba sheria au hatua inayohusika, kwa kiwango inachopingana na Katiba ni batili au kinyume cha Katiba basi Mahakama Kuu ikiona kuwa yafaa au hali au masilahi ya jamii yahitaji hivyo, badala ya kutamka kuwa sheria au hatua hiyo ni batili, itakuwa na uwezo wa kuamua kutoa fursa kwa ajili ya Serikali au mamlaka nyingine yoyote inayohusika kurekebisha hitilafu iliyopo katika sheria inayotuhumiwa au hatua inayohusika katika muda na kwa jinsi itakavyotajwa na Mahakama Kuu, na sheria hiyo au hatua inayohusika itaendelea kuhesabiwa kuwa ni halali hadi ama marekebisho yatakapofanywa au muda uliowekwa na Mahakama Kuu utakapokwisha, mradi muda mfupi zaidi ndio uzingatiwe" .

    Katiba ya saa ya Jamhuri ya Muungano kwa mujibu wa utangulizi wake ina tamka kuwa
    " KWA HIYO, BASI, KATIBA HII IMETUNGWA NA BUNGE MAALUM LA JAMHURI YA MUUNGANO WA TANZANIA, kwa niaba ya Wananchi, kwa madhumuni ya kujenga jamii kama hiyo, na pia kwa ajili ya kuhakikisha kwamba Tanzania inaongozwa na Serikali yenye kufuata misingi ya demokrasia na ujamaa.

    Kwa maana nyingine ni kusema kuwa, Bunge hili la Kawaida haliwezi kuchukua madaraka "BUNGE MAALUM" kutunga katiba.Haijatajwa ndani ya Katiba, hilo Bunge Maalum ni Bunge gani, linakutanaje na wajumbe wake ni akina nani.

    Aidha, ukisoma ibara za Katiba unaona kuwa mamlaka makuu ya BUNGE ni kutunga sheria na si Katiba. Bunge limekuwa likiifanyia kazi hiyo kwa kuweka vilaka katika Katiba kwa utaratibu wa marekebisho ya sheria ya Katiba kwa mujibu wa Ibara ya 98 inayosomeka.

    98-(1) Bunge laweza kutunga Sheria kwa ajili ya kubadilisha masharti yoyote ya Katiba hii kwa kufuata Kanuni zifuatazo:-
    (a) Muswada wa Sheria kwa ajili ya kubadilisha masharti yoyote ya Katiba hii (isipokuwa yale yanayohusika na

    aya ya (b) ya ibara hii ndogo) au masharti yoyote ya sheria yoyote iliyotajwa katika Orodha ya Kwanza kwenye Nyongeza ya Pili utaungwa mkono kwa kura za Wabunge ambao idadi yao haipungui theluthi mbili ya Wabunge wote;


    (b) Muswada wa Sheria kwa ajili ya kubadilisha masharti yoyote ya Katiba hii au masharti yoyote ya Sheria

    yoyote yanayohusika na jambo lolote kati ya mambo yaliyotajwa katika Orodha ya Pili kwenye Nyongeza ya

    Pili iliyoko mwishoni wa Katiba hii, utapitishwa tu iwapo utaungwa mkono kwa kura za Wabunge ambao
    idadi yao haipungui theluthi mbili ya Wabunge wote kutoka Tanzania Bara na theluthi mbili ya Wabunge wote kutoka Tanzania Zanzibar.



    Ibara ya 62 ya Katiba inaeleza bayana kuwa:

    " 62-(1) Kutakuwa na Bunge la Jamhuri ya Muungano ambalo litakuwa na sehemu mbili, yaani Rais na Wabunge.
    Kwa maana ya kumuhusisha Rais katika Muundo wake, Bunge siku zote haliwezi kuwa huru juu ya maamuzi yake dhidi ya Serikali, achilia mbali Mahakama ambayo watendaji wake ni watumishi wa Serikali kwa uteuzi wa Rais.
     
  6. Buchanan

    Buchanan JF Diamond Member

    #6
    Jun 21, 2010
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    Hili suala la "Mahakama Maalum" ya Katiba naona ni kitendawili! Katika Ibara ya 128 (4) imeandikwa kama ifuatavyo: "Bunge laweza kutunga sheria kwa ajili ya kuweka masharti kuhusu utaratibu wa uchaguzi wa Mwenyekiti wa Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba, utaratibu wa kupeleka shauri mbele ya Mahakama hiyo, utaratibu wa kuendesha shauri katika Mahakama na utaratibu wa kuwasilisha Serikalini uamuzi wa Mahakama Maalum ya Katiba." Bunge letu halijatunga Sheria hiyo kama Ibara ya 128 (4) inavyotamka.
    Bunge la Katiba nalo haijulikani linapatikanaje! Nimejaribu kuperuzi Kitabu cha "Reflections on the First Multi-Party Parliament, 1995-2000" by Pius Msekwa, uk. 6 ameandika kama ifuatavyo:

    The Meaning of ''Constituent Assembly''
    As has already been stated, the normal practice in Tanzania and other
    African Commonwealth countries has been that a new constitution is
    enacted by legislative body which is designated as a "Constituent
    Assembly.'' This unique procedure serves two purposes. First, it is
    intended to signify the special legal sanctity of the Constitution, by
    giving it a separate procedure entirely distinct from the ordinary
    legislative procedure which is followed when enacting ordinary laws.
    Secondly, it removes the requirement of having to obtain the assent of
    6 Reflections on the First Multi-Party Parliament, 1995-2000
    the Head of State, which is applicable to all other laws which are followed
    when enacted by Parliament. Unlike ordinary laws which must obtain
    the assent of the head of state, after enactment by the Constituent
    Assembly, the constitution takes effect without having to be assented to
    by the head of state.
    It is important to underscore the meaning of the term ''Constituent
    Assembly'' because some people have mistakenly assumed that this is a
    body which can be assembled anyhow. They seem to believe that this is
    the same as the so-called ''National Constitutional Conference'' of handpicked
    or self appointed people which can be convened for the purpose
    of enacting a new constitution outside parliament (Kutunga Kitabu nje
    ya Bunge). And the only reason given for this strategy of avoiding
    Parliament is that the august House is dominated by CCM members
    (80%), hence it will only give effect to the wishes of the ruling party
    and ignore the views of the opposition!
    Any attempt to by-pass Parliament would clearly be unconstitutional
    and a violation of the cherished principle of the rule of law. To disregard
    the law making powers of parliament for the only reason that it is
    dominated by CCM members is tantamount to challenging the
    sovereignty of the people who elected those members in free and fair
    elections. Parliament is dominated by CCM members because that was
    the will of the majority of the electorate who voted in the 1995 general
    elections. Democracy demand that the manifest will of the voters Must
    be respected.
    Furthermore, those assumptions and strategies appear to be based on
    a serious misunderstanding of the proper meaning of the term ''constituent
    assembly." It should be clearly understood that because the constituent
    assembly is essentially a legislative body:
    a) It must be established by law;
    b) The law establishing the constituent assembly must delegate
    legislative powers to it;
    c) Its members cannot be hand-picked or self appointed. They must be
    elected and given that specific mandate by the people themselves
    .
    In practice, there are two ways of instituting a constituent assembly.
    One way is to arrange for the election of the members of the constituent
    assembly by universal adult suffrage, in exactly the same way as elections
    Constitutions and the Constitution- Making Process in Tanzania 7
    are held for members of the National Assembly. Its sole mandate will
    be to deliberate on, and enact, a new constitution by a specified majority.
    This is the method which was adopted by the National Resistance
    Movement in Uganda, in its Constitution making process by a specified
    majority. Elections to the constituency assembly took place in March
    1994, and the assembly first met on 12th May, 1994 Under the
    chairmanship of the Chief Justice, as required by the statute which
    established it. But it must be remembered that at that material time there
    was no National Assembly in existence in Uganda.
    The alternative method is for the law to make provision for the
    conversion of the existing National Assembly into a constituency
    assembly, for tile Specific purpose of enacting a new constitution. This
    was the method adopted in Tanzania in 1962 for enacting the union
    Constitution; and was adopted again in 1977 for enacting the Union
    Constitution..
    This was also the method adopted in South Africa in 1994,
    when the newly elected National Assembly and Senate were jointly
    converted into a Constituent Assembly for the purpose of deliberating
    on, and enacting, tile new Constitution of the Republic of South Africa,
    1996.

    Wakuu kulingana na Mheshimiwa Pius Msekwa hapo juu inaonekana kwamba kuna Sheria ilitungwa ili kuanzisha Bunge la Katiba wakati wa Kuunda Republican Constitution mwaka 1962 na Permanent Constitution Mwaka 1977!
    Naomba kama kuna mtu atapata Sheria hizo basi azibandike hapa! Kama nitazipata basi nitaziweka hapa ili tujadili!
     
  7. Mwanamayu

    Mwanamayu JF-Expert Member

    #7
    Jun 22, 2010
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    Kama Mahakama na bunge la katiba havipo basi huku ni kusigina Katiba ya Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania ambayo viongozi wa ngazi za juu akiwemo rais wanaapa kuilinda na kuitetea! Ila nilivyoelewa mimi baada ya kusoma ibara ya 126, kazi ya mahakama ya katiba ni kusuluhisha/ kuamua ubishi wa serikali ya muungano na mapinduzi kwenye mambo ya katiba na sio mwananchi mmoja na suala la katiba.
     
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