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Antiviral activity of Carisa edulis (Mugarika)

Discussion in 'JF Doctor' started by Sigma, Mar 29, 2011.

  1. Sigma

    Sigma JF-Expert Member

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    Mar 29, 2011
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    The antiviral activity of compounds isolated from Kenyan
    Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl

    F. M. Tolo et al.

    (Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(15), pp. 1517-1522, 4 August, 2010)


    An Abstract
    Extracts of a Kenyan medicinal plant, Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl, were subjected to bioactivity guided phytochemical analysis for identification of biological makers of activity. Pure compounds; lupeol, oleuropein, carissol and -amyrin were subsequently isolated. In vitro evaluations of the compounds against viral strains of Herpes simples virus types 1 revealed a significant activity for lupeol at EC50 of between 2.98 - 4.2 μg/ml for both sensitive and resistant strains with a high therapeutic index (TI > 38).

    A concentration of the compound at 10.0 μg/ml was virucidal, reducing viral yields in Vero E6 cells by 98.3%. On oral administration to mice at 20.0 μg/ml following a cutaneous viral infection, a delayed onset of infections of slow progression to mild and sever zosteriform lesions were observed (p £ 0.05 test vs. control by repeated measures ANOVA).


    The mice receiving treatment with the compound also exhibited increased mean survival times as opposed to control (p 0.05 test verses control by Student's t-test) with a therapeutic index >5 (LD50 >100.0 μg/ml). The results indicate promising antiviral

    activity of lupeol and necessitate further examinations of efficacy and safety in higher mammals.


    To access full paper visit, Journal of Medicinal Plants Research

     
  2. PakaJimmy

    PakaJimmy JF-Expert Member

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    This is the NEWS now!...of course plus imani, mgonjwa atapona 100%

    Miss Judith kataa na hili la kisayansi sasa!
     
  3. Azimio Jipya

    Azimio Jipya JF-Expert Member

    #3
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    NIMRI, Muhimbili, Government Chemistry, UDSM, TFDA , TBS , TPRI ... Here is the challenge
    ...a clear point to take off ... for everything!!

    We want you come up with something different ....?

    Guys wake up ....!! Nothing new in here..

    Just add some control experiment ...make REV bless the medicine etc and .... give to patient and test against the known data ...go go ..go... do this before the westeners are here to take the advantages..
     
  4. Papa Diana

    Papa Diana JF-Expert Member

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    Issue inayokuja sasa hapo tu ni dosing potency/ strength of medicine required to treat, dosing frequency and length of treatment??

    Kikombe kimoja tu?




     
  5. Ms Judith

    Ms Judith JF-Expert Member

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    mpendwa, unashindwa nini kunielewa?

    mimi ninachohoji ni ufunuo, sio dawa. kama babu angefanya kazi zake kama waganga wengine wa jadi wala nisingekuwa na haya ninayohoji hapa kila siku. tatizo yeye anasema kafunuliwa (kapata maono/ndoto) na Mungu, sasa mimi kila nikimpima kwenye mizani ya Mungu ninayemfahamu kwa mujibu wa ukristo naona anapungua!

    ukinielewa hapo, hatutapata shida kusafiri pamoja ndani ya neno la kweli

    ubarikiwe sana mpendwa na usiache kuliitia jina la Bwana siku zpte za maisha yako
     
  6. m

    mariavictima Senior Member

    #6
    Mar 29, 2011
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    Alah!! Kumbe unampima Babu kwenye mizani ya MUngu unayemfahamu wewe?? Hayo ndiyo maneno!! Nilidhani unampima kwenye mizani ya Mungu Tunayemjua sisi wote? Kama ni huyo Mungu wako sina tatizo na wewe maana anaweza akawa hata mdoli. Huyo ni wako na kaa naye mwenyewe, sisi hatumtaki maana umembinafsisha kwako. Mungu wetu ni mwenye huruma na upendo na ni wa wote bila kujali rangi, kabila, dini etc, hataki kuona watu wake wanateseka na ndiyo maana ameleta ufumbuzi wa matatizo yetu. POLE JUDY NA MUNGU WAKO. Safiri peke yako. Kwa heri dada.
     
  7. Azimio Jipya

    Azimio Jipya JF-Expert Member

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    Judith Nakupata;

    Hebu nieleimisha hapa...

    Dawa za famasi/za hosiptalini (pharmaceuticals) ...zinaingiaje kwenye swala la Mungu na maono?

    Dawa hizi akizitoa mchungaji/Shehe/ mkemia wa kawada/ famasia/dr wa kawada ... swala la mungu na maonao linaingia je?

    Hapo tumeachilia mbali zimetengenezwa na nani na nchi gani na wasafirishaji etc

    Will be very greatfull to here from you!!
     
  8. Sigma

    Sigma JF-Expert Member

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    Carissa edulis (mugarika)
    [​IMG][​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]
    Geographical distribution: Arabian peninsula, , Namibia, Botswana, : Botswana, Cambodia, Cameroon, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana,Guinea, Japan, Kenya, Myanmar, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia,
    Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam,
    Yemen


    ethnopharmacological use.

    Root-headache, chest complaints, rheumatism (magonjwa ya joints), gonorrhea, syphylis, rabies(kichaa cha mbwa inasababishwa na virus), gastric ulcer(vidonda tumbo), glandular inflammation (magonjwa ya matezi), malaria,
    Fruit- edible
     
  9. Azimio Jipya

    Azimio Jipya JF-Expert Member

    #9
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    Good observations!!
     
  10. KYALOSANGI

    KYALOSANGI JF-Expert Member

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    ahsante sana bi judith,
    hivi kanisa langu kkkt limebariki haya babu ! Hivi na mmi nikisema nimeota watanipinga kwa hoja gani
    au ni ufunuo wa kuonesha unafiki wa kanisa
     
  11. Ms Judith

    Ms Judith JF-Expert Member

    #11
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    huu ufunuo umeibua mengi na mojawapo ni hilo la KKKT kung'ang'ana na babu. kwa kweli baadhi ya viongozi wa kidini wameishasahau kabisa wajibu wao wa kuenenda kama barua ya wazi inayosomwa na watu wote. sasa hebu mtazame askofu laizer anavyomng'ang'ania babu sasa kama barua ujumbe wake amaoutoa kwa ulimwengu ni nini? yaani kanisa sasa linafungamana na waganga wa jadi tena ambao roho zinazoongoza ufunuo wao hazieleweki vizuri.

    tusubiri tuone sijui kesho kanisa litashabikia ndoto ya nani mwingine.

    ndio maana nasema tulifuate neno la Mungu pekee, haya makanisa yameishaingiliwa sana na tamaa ya fedha na siasa. kumbuka akina lowasa wanavyopewa mimbari kila wanapokanyaga makanisani, yaani siasa tupu

    lakini hatimaye neno litashinda na zaidi ya kushinda

    ubarikiwe sana mpendwa
     
  12. B

    BABAPAMA Member

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    Mar 30, 2011
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    Carissa edulis-murigariga wa miujiza ya Loliondo

    Utangulizi
    Mchungaji Mstaafu Ambilikile Mwasapile ni jina lililojipatia umaarufu sana katika siku za karibuni nchini Tanzania. Umaarufu wake unatokana na madai kuhusu uwezo wake wa kutibu maradhi sugu mbalimbali kwa kutumia dawa ya ‘kiimani’ iliyotengenezwa kwa kutumia majani ya mti maarufu sana katika mazingira ya eneo hilo unaojulikana kama murigariga.
    Lakini murigariga ni nini? Tabia zake ni zipi? Je una uwezo wowote wa kutibu maradhi yanayodaiwa kuwa sugu? Ni mti wa kale au umegunduliwa juzi juzi tu?
    Murigariga au Carissa edulis kama unavyojulikana kitaalamu au ‘mtanda-****’ kwa Kiswahili fasaha si kitu kigeni duniani. Ni mti ambao umekuwepo tangu zama na zama. Kiasili, mti huu unapatikana maeneo mengi sana duniani hasa yale yenye uoto wa kitropiki kama vile Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Ethiopia, Thailand, Botswana, Namibia, Myanmar na Afrika ya Kusini (1).
    Mti huu upo kwenye familia ya mimea ya Apocynaceae, familia ambayo inajumuisha genera zipatazo 163 za mimea zenye takribani aina 1850 za miti (2). Familia ya Apocynaceae inajumuisha aina kadhaa za miti ambazo zina matumizi mbalimbali kulingana na sehemu zinapopatikana. Kwa mfano kwa mujibu wa utafiti uliofanywa mwaka 1970 na Kokwaro na wenzake huko nchini Kenya (3), ilionekana kuwa aina ijulikanayo kama Acokanthera schimperi imekuwa ikitumiwa kwa miaka mingi na wenyeji wa maeneo ulipofanyika utafiti huo kwa kupaka kwenye ncha za mishale na mikuki kama sumu. Hata hivyo, zipo aina kadhaa katika familia hii ya mimea ambazo si sumu na zimekuwa zikitumiwa kwa matumizi mbalimbali yakiwemo chakula.
    Matumizi ya mti wa Carissa edulis yanatofautiana kati ya jamii na jamii. Kwa mfano inasemekana baadhi ya jamii nchini Ghana hutumia mti huu kama chachandu ya kuongeza ladha katika chakula, wakati nchini Sudan na Kenya, mti huu hutumika kutengenezea siki au jam. Aidha zipo jamii kadhaa hukohuko Kenya zinazotumia mti huu kama dawa ya kufukuza nyoka kwa kuweka mizizi yake iliyokaushwa juu ya paa la nyumba.
    Pamoja na matumizi yaliyoelezwa hapo juu, matumizi makubwa kabisa ya mti ambayo ndiyo msingi mkuu wa makala hii ni katika kutibu magonjwa mbalimbali ya binadamu pamoja na wanyama.
    Ili tuweze kufahamu vizuri utendaji kazi wa mti huu katika matibabu, hebu kwanza tuangalie kilichomo (ingredients) katika mti huu.
    Kilichomo (ingredients)
    Vifuatavyo ni viasili vilivyowahi kukutwa katika mti wa Carissa edulis baada ya tafiti mbalimbali za wataalamu wa afya pamoja na mitishamba.
    1. Mizizi yake imegundulika kuwa na kiasili kikuu cha Sesquiterpene ambacho huzalisha viasili vya carissone, cryptomeridiol, germacarane na β-eudesmane. Kwa ujumla viasili vya sesquiterpenes vinajulikana kuwa na tabia au uwezo wa kutibu magonjwa au hali zote zinazohusiana na mcharuko mwili (anti-inflammatory effects), vimelea (antimicrobial effects) na saratani na uvimbe (antineoplastic effects).
    2. Mbegu za matunda yake zimeonekana kuwa na viasili vya lignans kama vile carissanol, secoisolariciresinol, nortrachelogenin na olivil. Kutokana na umbo lake la kikemikali, viasili hivi hususani carissanol vimeonekana kuwa na tabia au uwezo wa kuua vimelea (antimicrobial effects) na kusaidia kuua seli zisizohitajika mwilini (antioxidant effects) sifa ambayo inaipa uwezo mkubwa wa kupambana na seli za saratani.
    3. Vichipukizi vyake vina viasili vya quebrachytol ambavyo kina tabia za kuimarisha kinga ya mwili kwa kutegemeza tando za seli (membrane stabilization effects) na kuua seli zisizohitajika zikiwemo za saratani (antioxidant effects). Pia zina cardioglycosides ambavyo hufanya kazi kwenye pump ya Na+-K+ na kuweza kuua minyoo.
    4. Shina na majani yameonekana kuwa na aina fulani ya kemikali ya alkaloid
    5. Magamba ya mizizi yake yamegunduliwa kuwa na viasili vya 2-Hydroxy acetophenone ambacho kina uwezo wa kufanya kazi katika mishipa ya damu na kuifanya itanuke (vasodilation effects) na hivyo kuwa na sifa kubwa ya kusaidia kushusha shinikizo la damu na kuongeza nguvu za kiume.
    Matumizi katika tiba
    Wenyeji wa jamii kadhaa nchini Ghana wamekuwa, kwa miaka kadhaa sasa, wakichanganya magamba ya mizizi na baadhi ya viungo na kutumia kwa ajili ya kutibu maumivu ya mgongo na maumivu ya sehemu nyingine za mwili. Aidha nchini Guinea, jamii zimekuwa na mazoea ya kuchemsha majani ya mti huu na kutumia kutibu maumivu ya meno. Jamii nyingine barani Africa zimekuwa zikitumia sehemu ya juu ya mizizi hii kutibu uvimbe na mcharuko mwili (inflammatory reactions). Hali kadhalika sehemu za mizizi mkuu zimekuwa zikitumika kwa ajili ya kutibu magonjwa ya zinaa kama kaswende na kisonono, kurudisha urijali na kuongeza uwezo wa kuzaa, vidonda vya tumbo au kikohozi.
    Jamii nyingine zimekuwa zikitumia mti huu kwa ajili ya kutoa mimba, na kwa hapa Tanzania yapo baadhi ya makabila yanayotumia Carissa edulis kutibu ugonjwa wa malaria.
    Utafiti wa hivi karibuni nchini Kenya umeonesha kuwa, mti wa Carissa edulis una uwezo wa kuua vimelea vya virus aina ya Herpes Simplex Virus ingawa haijajulikana hasa ni kwa njia gani.
    Kwa mujibu wa mtafiti Lindsay na wenzake, 2000 (3) ukiacha aina (species) hii ya Carissa edulis, aina nyingine zilizo katika jamii moja na mti huu, kama vile Carissa lanceolata, imethibitika kuwa na uwezo wa kutibu bacteria vya aina mbalimbali vikiwemo Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli na Pseudomonas aeruginosa bila kuwa na madhara kwa mtumiaji.
    Je mti huu una madhara kwa afya za binadamu?
    Mpaka sasa hakuna ushahidi wowote wa kitafiti unaoonesha kuwa matumizi ya dawa za mitishamba zinazotokana na mti wa Carissa edulis zina madhara kwa binadamu.
    Je kuna ushahidi wowote wa kitafiti kuthibitisha uwezo wa Carissa edulis?
    Tafiti kadhaa zilizofanywa barani Afrika na kwingineko duniani zinathibitisha hilo.
    1. Uwezo wa kupambana na virus (Antiviral activities)
    Mwaka 2005 , watafiti nchini Kenya (4) walitumia magamba ya mizizi ya Carissa edulis kuchunguza uwezo wa mti huu katika kupambana na virus wa jamii ya Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) kwa kutumia panya. Matokeo ya utafiti huo yalionesha kuwa, dawa iliyotumika kutokana na mti huo ilikuwa na uwezo wa kuua aina (strains) zote mbili (wild na resistant) za virus hawa wa HSV. Ilionekana pia kuwa, aina sugu ya virus hawa yaani resistant strain ndiyo iliyoathiriwa zaidi ikilinganishwa na aina isiyo sugu (wild strain). Kwa maneno mengine, mti huu ulionekana kuwa na uwezo mkubwa katika kuua na kutokomeza virus walioonekana kuwa sugu zaidi kwa madawa mengine kuliko wale wasio sugu. Hata hivyo watafiti hawakuonesha ni kwa jinsi gani (mode of mechanism) mti huu uliweza kufanya kazi hiyo na hivyo kupendekeza kufanyika kwa utafiti mwingine utakaofanya kazi hiyo hususani kwa binadamu.
    2. Uwezo wa kupambana na virus vya Ukimwi (Antiretroviral effects)
    Mpaka sasa hakuna utafiti wowote wa kisayansi uliofanywa kuthibitisha uwezo wa mti wa Carissa edulis katika kupambana na virusi vinavyosababisha ugonjwa wa Ukimwi. Hivyo bado ni ngumu kuthibitisha uwezo wa mti huu katika kuua na kutokomeza virus vya Ukimwi. Hii inaleta changamoto kubwa kwa wanasayansi kuweza kubainisha hilo.
    3. Uwezo wa kutibu kifafa na degedege (Anticonvulsant effects)
    Mtafiti Ya’u (5) kutoka idara ya madawa ya chuo kikuu cha Ahmadu Bello, nchini Nigeria akishirikiana na wenzake walifanya utafiti kuchunguza uwezo wa mti wa Carissa edulis katika kutibu magonjwa ya degedege na kifafa. Katika utafiti wao, walitumia magamba ya mizizi ya mti huu kuchunguza uwezo wake katika kuzuia kutokea kwa degedege kwa wanyama. Watafiti hao walipendekeza kuwa mti wa Carissa edulis una kiasili chenye uwezo wa kuzuia kutokea kwa degedege na hivyo kukubaliana na madai ya baadhi ya jamii zinazotumia mti huu kama dawa ya kutibu tatizo hilo.
    4. Uwezo wa kutoa maji mwilini (Antidiuretic effects)
    Mtafiti Nadi T (6) wa chuo kikuu cha Addis Ababa, Ethiopia akishirikiana na wenzake walifanya utafiti kuchunguza uwezo wa mti Carissa edulis katika kutoa na kupunguza maji mwilini kwa njia ya mkojo (antidiuretic effects). Katika utafiti wao, wataalamu hao walitumia magamba ya mizizi kuwapa panya na kisha kuchunguza kiasi cha mkojo kilichotolewa na panya hao pamoja na upotevu wa viasili vya Sodium, potassium na Chloride mwilini. Kadiri dozi ya dawa iliyotumika ilipoongezwa, kiwango cha mkojo na upotevu wa viasili hivyo nao pia uliongezeka. Matokeo haya ya utafiti yanaendana na mazoea ya tangu kale ya jamii mbalimbali ambazo zimekuwa zikitumia mti huu kwa ajili ya kusaidia kukojoa hususani kwa watu wenye matatizo ya figo.
    5. Uwezo wa kutibu kisukari (Antidiabetic effects)
    Watafiti kutoka chuo kikuu cha Alexandria nchini Misri (7), wakitumia panya wa maabara, walifanya utafiti kwa lengo la kuchunguza uwezo wa mti wa Carissa edulis katika kutibu ugonjwa wa kisukari. Katika utafiti wao, wataalamu hao walifanikiwa kugundua kuwa, majani ya mti wa Carissa edulis yalikuwa na uwezo wa kushusha na kurekebisha kiwango cha sukari kwa panya waliokuwa na kisukari ndani ya muda wa masaa matatu, sawa kabisa na dawa za Metformin na buguanides zinazotumika kutibu ugonjwa huo mahospitalini.
    Hitimisho
    Ingawa tafiti mbalimbali za kisayansi zimefanyika kujaribu kuonesha uwezo wa mti wa Carissa edulis katika kutibu magonjwa kadhaa kwa kutumia wanyama kama panya na kuku, mpaka sasa hakuna utafiti wowote uliowahi kufanyika kwa binadamu kuthibitish hilo, pamoja na kwamba tangu enzi na enzi, watu wa jamii zilizojaliwa kuwa na mti huu wamekuwa na wanaendelea kuutumia katika kujitibu maradhi mbalimbali yanayowakabili. Ni changamoto kwa watafiti na watalaamu kufanya tafiti zaidi za kisayansi ili kutambua jinsi mti huu unavyofanya kazi katika kutibu baadhi ya magonjwa na kuthibitisha pasi na shaka uwezo wake katika kutibu ugonjwa wa Ukimwi na maradhi mengine sugu.
    Marejeo
    1. www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb2/AFTPDFS/Carissa_edulis.pdf
    2. Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. & Kupicha, F.K. et al. (1985) Apocynaceae FZ 7(2)
    3. Kokwaro, J.O., 1976. Medicinal Plants of East Africa. East African Literature. Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 1–8, 25–26.
    4. Lindsay, E.A., Berry, Y., Jamie, J.F., Bremner, J.B., 2000. Antibacterial compounds from Carissa lanceolata R. Br. Phytochemistry 55, 403–406.
    5. Festus M. Tolo, Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Faith W. Muli, Eliud N.M. Njagi, Wilson Njue, Kazuko Kumon, Geoffrey M. Mungai, Charles N. Muthaura, Joseph M. Muli, Lucia K. Keter, Esau Oishi, Mawuli W. Kofi-Tsekpo, 2005. Anti-viral activity of the extracts of a Kenyan medicinal plant Carissa edulis against herpes simplex virus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104 (2006) 92–99. Inapatikana mtandaoni www.sciencedirect.com

    6. Ya’u J, Yaro AH, Abubakar MS, Anuka JA, Hussaini IM., 2008. Anticonvulsant activity of Carissa edulis (Vahl) (Apocynaceae) root bark extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Nov 20;120(2):255-8. Epub 2008 Sep 4. Inapatikana mtandaoni www.sciencedirect.com
    7. Nedi T, Mekonnen N, Urga K., 2004. Diuretic effect of the crude extracts of Carissa edulis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Nov;95(1):57-61. Inapatikana mtandaoni www.sciencedirect.com
    8. El-Fiky FK, Abou-Karam MA, Afify EA., 1996. Effect of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Jan;50(1):43-7. Inapatikana mtandaoni http://www.kau.edu.sa
     
  13. L

    Leornado JF-Expert Member

    #13
    Mar 30, 2011
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    Hii itakuwa Neema kwetu kama dawa hii ya Babu inatibu manake nayo ni kundi la Carissa edulis , mzee wangu ana tatizo sugu la mapafu kujaa maji, keshajaribu dawa za kila nchi ikiwemo kwenda huko lakini wapi.
    Alipelekwa Loliondo kama wiki mbili zimepita, matokeo yanaridhisha ukilinganisha na ya dawa alozotumia awali.
    This will be a miracle in our family kama maji yatakauka kabisa mapafuni. Praise the Lord.
     
  14. NewDawnTz

    NewDawnTz JF-Expert Member

    #14
    Mar 30, 2011
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    Huo mti uko hapo miaka nenda rudi na wala hakuna mtu aliegundua una content zinazoweza kutibu na kuchukua hatua za kutoa tiba kwa watu wenye uhitaji nao.....

    .Au unataka kumaanisha babu ana utaalamu wa kisayansi na maabara aliyotumia kupima na kujua kuwa huu mti una content zinazoweza kufanya kazi as anti-viral?

    Kama hana huu utaalamu na wala hawezi kuwa nao, Je Mungu hawezi kumpa babu maono ya kuutumia mti huo kutoa tiba kwa watu? Hili nalo tuliiteje?

    Au unataka kutuaminisha kuwa Mungu hatoi ufunuo kwa watu kujua kuwa mti fulani wa asili unaweza kuwa tiba?


    Au ufunuo una-patent (exclusive rights) kwamba kuna watu fulani Mungu anaweza kuwafunulia (au kujifunua kwao) na wengine aaahhh!!
     
  15. Ms Judith

    Ms Judith JF-Expert Member

    #15
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    kuna kila dalili kuwa babu kakopi na kupaste toka kenya. wao kenya wanaitafiti dawa hiyo mwaka wa 4 sasa!

    ukiijua kweli, hiyo kweli itakuweka huru

    ubarikiwe sana
     
  16. M

    MrT Member

    #16
    Mar 30, 2011
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    Umenena vyema. Walio kwenye taaluma fuateni mifano kama hii paper kutoka Korea ya 2010: 'Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts of medicinal plants':

    Bofya hapa: SpringerLink - The Journal of Microbiology, Volume 48, Number 2.
     
  17. Kamakabuzi

    Kamakabuzi JF-Expert Member

    #17
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    Dada tumekueleza mengi katika ile thread ya Mohamed shossi uliyoianzisha. Sijui kwa nini hutaki kuelewa? Ebu soma kurasa tatu za mwisho za thread hiyo.
    Unasema kenya wamefanya utafiti huu mwaka wa 4 na bado hawajasema mti unatibu na kuutumia kwa binadamu; je hiyo copy and paste unaielewa vizuri?
    Kama ingekuwa copy and paste, basi babu angesema dawa haijathibitika kutibu kama walivyosema kenya!
    Mti huo upo sehemu nyingi na wala babu hajazuia usiende huko porini anakouchimba; ebu newewe kauchimbe, uchemshe uwape watu na maelfu watestify kuwa wamepona!
    Kwa babu ni zaidi ya mti - ni neno la MUNGU lililowekwa kwenye huo mti.
     
  18. Kardinali

    Kardinali Member

    #18
    Mar 30, 2011
    Joined: Aug 2, 2010
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    Asante mkuu kwa makala lakini ni vema kuwa-acknowledge walioandika hii article. Inapatikana hapa Carissa edulis na
     
  19. OPTIMISTIC

    OPTIMISTIC Senior Member

    #19
    Mar 30, 2011
    Joined: Mar 12, 2011
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    To Miss Judith, mimi sioni tatizo liko wapi ni ndoto yenye maono? Researchers walifanya utafiti na wakapata majibu, babu amepewa maono anatengeneza dawa kwa kipimo alichoonyeshwa akawapa wagonjwa wakapona, kuna ubishi mbona ni kitu kiko obvious
     
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