denotes positive and supportive attitudes to a 'fatherland' (Latin patria
< Greek patris, πατρίς
), by individuals and groups. The 'fatherland' (or 'motherland') can be a region or a city, but patriotism usually applies to a nation
and/or a nation-state
. Patriotism covers such attitudes as: pride in its achievements and culture, the desire to preserve its character and the basis of the culture, and identification with other members of the nation. Patriotism is closely associated with nationalism
, and the terms are often used synonymously
. Strictly speaking, nationalism is an ideology
- but it often promotes patriotic attitudes as desirable and appropriate. (Both nationalist political movements
, and patriotic expression, may, yet need not, be negative towards other people's 'fatherland').
Patriotism has ethical connotations: it implies that the 'fatherland' (however defined) is a moral standard or moral value in itself. The expression my country right or wrong
—perhaps a misquotation of the American naval officer Stephen Decatur
, but also attributed to Carl Schurz
—is the extreme form of this belief. Patriotism also implies that the individual should place the interests of the nation above their personal and group interests.
, the sacrifice may extend to their own life. Death in battle for the fatherland is the archetype
of extreme patriotism.