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    1. Mama wawilii's Avatar
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      Default English learning thread

      Mimi Mama Wawili (naamini na wengine wengi) nina nia sana ya kujifunza na kuboresha uwezo wangu wa kutumia Lugha ya Kiingereza. Nimeomba ushauri na nimepata jibu kuwa kuna washiriki wengi hapa JF wana uwezo wa kunikuza katika hii lugha ngeni ambayo kwangu ni Mtihani katika kuweza kuitumia. Naomba ushauri wenu lakini zaidi naomba kujifunza. Kila ambae anaona anaweza kuwa ni Mwalimu naomba niwe mwanafunzi wake katika hili.

      Nitajitahidi sana post zinazofuata nitumie Kiingereza ambacho nina hakika kabisa kuwa kitapinda; na hapo ndipo najikabidhi kwenu ili kiwe kinyoofu. Nitakuwa huru sijali kukosea sababu najua ndio njia pekee naweza tambua ni kwa kiasi gani nakosea hasa nikitegemea masahihisho toka kwenu.

      Natanguliza shukrani kwa washiriki wote wataoweza nisaidia katika mapungufu yangu ya lugha hii ya Kiingereza.

      Mama Wawili.




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      Default Re: English learning thread

      Quote By Shilewashile View Post
      Thanks sir for spending your to teacher us. May almighty God bless you abundantly.
      Quote By Tokyo40 View Post
      Thank you Sir, for taking your time to teach us.

      The pleasure is mine.
      Sir Tokyo40 I know that spending means apply or kutumia in swahili, so what is error at Shilewashile statement?

      Also in your answer Thanks for taking your time I couldn't understand why did you use continuos tense instead of Take?

    3. Tokyo40's Avatar
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      Quote By Open school View Post
      Sir Tokyo40 I know that spending means apply or kutumia in swahili, so what is error at Shilewashile statement?

      Also in your answer Thanks for taking your time I couldn't understand why did you use continuos tense instead of Take?
      We usually "spend our time" for our own satisfaction.
      I spent my time studying English.
      I spend all of my free time with my family.

      We can "take our time" to do something for others.

      Time is valuable and it is normal to say to someone " thank you for your time today" after a job interview for example.

      That is why I think "taking your time" is better than "spending your time".

      I use continuous "taking" because the action is still continuing. I am still here posting and answering questions. I am still taking my valuable time to assist you to the best of my ability.
      Last edited by Tokyo40; Yesterday at 04:21.
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      Default Re: English learning thread

      Answers to Quiz 23.1

      1) for
      2) to
      3) to
      4) for
      5) for
      6) of


      Prepositions "With," "Over," and "By"
      With

      Used to indicate being together or being involved:

      I ordered a sandwich with a drink.
      He was with his friend when he saw me.

      She has been working with her sister at the nail shop.

      The manager will be with you shortly.
      Used to indicate "having":

      I met a guy with green eyes.
      Were you the one talking with an accent?

      People with a lot of money are not always happy.

      Used to indicate "using":

      I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me.

      This is the soup that I made with rice and barley.

      He cut my hair with his gold scissors.
      Used to indicate feeling:

      I am emailing you with my sincere apology.

      He came to the front stage with confidence.

      Used to indicate agreement or understanding:

      Are you with me?
      Yes, I am completely with you.
      She agrees with me.

      OVER

      Used to indicate movement from one place to another:

      Come over to my house for dinner sometime.

      Could you roll over?
      They sent over a gift for his promotion.

      Used to indicate movement downward:

      The big tree fell over on the road.
      Can you bend over and get the dish for me?

      He pushed it over the edge.

      Used to indicate more than an expected number or amount:

      This amount is over our prediction.
      Kids twelve and over can watch this movie.

      The phone rang for over a minute.

      Used to indicate a period of time:

      I worked there over a year.
      She did not sleep there over this past month.

      BY

      Used to indicate proximity:

      Can I sit by you?
      He was standing by me.
      The post office is by the bank.

      Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence:

      The microwave was fixed by the mechanic.

      The flowers were delivered by a postman.

      The branch office was closed by the head office.

      Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose:

      You can pass the exam by preparing for it.

      I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter.

      She finally broke the record by pure effort.

      Used to indicate a mean or method:

      Please send this package to Russia by airmail.

      I came here by subway.

      [Quiz 24.1]

      Choose the correct preposition in each sentence.

      1. If she left at 4 p.m., she should be here (with, over, by) now.

      2. Go (with, over, by) there and catch my ball.

      3. (With, Over, By) your determination, you will be able to achieve your dream.

      4. I just found it! It was (with, over, by) the radio on my desk.

      5. I knocked him (with, over, by) accidentally.

      6. She was (with, over, by) me when the accident occurred.

      Next lesson:
      Coordinating Conjunctions and Correlative Conjunctions
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Answers for Quiz 24.1

      1) by
      2) over
      3) With
      4) by
      5) over
      6) with


      Coordinating Conjunctions and Correlative Conjunctions

      A conjunction joins words or groups of words in a sentence.

      I ate lunch with Kate and Derma.
      Because it is rainy today, the trip is canceled.

      She didn’t press the bell, but I did.

      There are three types of conjunctions:

      1. Coordinating Conjunctions
      i) Connect words, phrases, or clauses that are independent or equal

      ii) and, but, or, so, for, yet, and not

      2. Correlative Conjunctions
      i) Used in pairs
      ii) both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also

      3. Subordinating Conjunctions
      i) Used at the beginning of subordinate clauses
      ii) although, after, before, because, how, if, once, since, so that, until, unless, when, while, where, whether, etc.

      Coordinating Conjunctions

      1. And—means "in addition to":

      We are going to a zoo and an aquarium on the same day.

      2. But—connects two different things that are not in agreement:

      I am a night owl, but she is an early bird.

      3. Or—indicates a choice between two things:

      Do you want a red one or a blue one?

      4. So—illustrates a result of the first thing:

      This song has been very popular, so I downloaded it.

      5. For—means "because":

      I want to go there again, for it was a wonderful trip.

      6. Yet—indicates contrast with something:

      He performed very well, yet he didn’t make the final cut.

      Correlative Conjunctions

      1. Both/and

      She won gold medals from both the single and group races.

      Both TV and television are correct words.

      2. Either/or

      I am fine with either Monday or Wednesday.

      You can have either apples or pears.

      3. Neither/nor

      He enjoys neither drinking nor gambling.

      Neither you nor I will get off early today.

      4. Not only/but also

      Not only red but also green looks good on you.

      She got the perfect score in not only English but also math.

      [Quiz 25.1]

      Write the correct conjunction in each sentence.

      1. ( ) my friend ( ) are taking the geography class.

      2. Do you want to go swimming ( ) golfing?

      3. I studied grammar for a long time, ( ) I still make mistakes.

      4. ( ) wood ( ) bricks can be used as homebuilding materials.

      5. I wasn’t feeling well this morning, ( ) I had to go to work.

      Next lesson:
      Subordinating Conjunctions
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Answers for Quiz 25.1

      1) Both, and
      2) or
      3) but (yet)
      4) Either, or
      5) yet (but)


      Subordinating Conjunctions
      Subordinating Conjunctions

      1. Although—means "in spite of the fact that":

      Although it was raining, I ran home.
      She showed up, although she felt sick.

      Although my mom told me to come home early, I stayed out late.

      2. After—indicates "subsequently to the time when":

      Please text me after you arrive at the shopping mall.

      We were forced to stop watching TV after the electricity went out.

      I always tell my daughter that she can have dessert after she eats her dinner.

      3. Before—indicates "earlier than the time that":

      He had written a living will before he died.

      Before he contacted me, I was going to call him.

      I need to finish the dishes before my wife gets home.

      4. Because—means "for the reason that":

      Because he was smart and worked hard, he was able to make a lot of money.

      They stopped building the house because it was pouring.

      I love dogs because they are so cute.

      5. How—means "the way in which":

      I wonder how you did it.
      He explained how he completed it in a few days.
      Can you show me how you fixed the computer?

      6. If—means "in the event that":

      If it is sunny tomorrow, we can go to the beach.
      If I receive a promotion, you will be the first to know.
      You can watch TV if you finish your homework.

      7. Once—indicates "at the moment when":

      Once you see him, you will recognize him.
      Once the light came on, we all shouted with joy.
      Call me once you start having contractions.

      8. Since—means "from the time when":

      I’ve been a singer since I was young.
      Since he graduated, he has been doing nothing.

      This building has been remodeled three times since I lived here.

      9. So that—means "in order to":

      So that she could keep her position, she didn’t complain at all.

      He finished his work as fast as possible so that he could leave early.

      He worked harder for a raise so he could buy a nice car.

      10. Until—means "up to the time that":

      Don’t go anywhere until I come back.
      She didn’t realize her talent in painting until her teacher mentioned it.

      They won’t allow us to sit until everyone arrives.

      11. Unless—means "except, on the condition":

      You will not pass the exam unless you get a score of 80 or higher.

      I will not tell you anything unless you tell me what you know first.

      Unless you ask her, you will never know.

      12. When—means "at that time":

      When I came in the room, everyone looked at me.

      I woke up when my baby was crying.
      I started looking for a gas station when my gas light went on.

      13. While—means "during the time":

      Someone called you while you were at the meeting.

      We met while we were working at the University.

      My dog started barking while I was talking on the phone.

      14. Where—indicates "in the place":

      This is where I came from.
      Please tell me where you are going.
      I need to know where John hid the present.

      15. Whether—means "if it is true or not":

      We will have a picnic whether it rains or not.

      It is time to decide whether we should take action.

      You need to decide whether or not you are hungry.

      [Quiz 26.1]

      Fill in the blanks with an appropriate conjunction.

      1. Could you email me ( ) you receive the offer?

      2. I want to buy it ( ) it is expensive or not.

      3. Don’t do that ( ) I allow it.

      4. ( ) you are confident with it, you should go for it.

      5. I didn’t enroll this semester ( ) I could go backpacking in Europe.

      6. My neighbor’s cat has been missing ( ) last Friday.

      7. ( ) I own a house, I am required to pay property taxes.

      Next lesson: Conjunctive Adverbs
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      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping


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      Default English learning thread

      Answers for Quiz 26.1

      1) when
      2) whether
      3) unless
      4) If
      5) so that
      6) since
      7) Because

      Conjunctive Adverbs

      Conjunctive adverbs are words that join independent clauses into one sentence.
      A conjunctive adverb helps you create a shorter sentence.

      When you use a conjunctive adverb, put a semicolon (;;)before it and a comma (,) after it.

      We have many different sizes of this shirt; however, it comes in only one color.

      Some examples of conjunctive adverbs are:
      accordingly, also, besides, consequently, finally, however, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, next, otherwise, still, therefore, then, etc.

      The due date for the final paper has passed; therefore, I could not submit mine on time.

      There are many history books; however, none of them may be accurate.

      It rained hard; moreover, lightening flashed and thunder boomed.

      The baby fell asleep; then, the doorbell rang.

      The law does not permit drinking and driving anytime; otherwise, there would be many more accidents.

      Conjunctive adverbs look like coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, so, for, yet, nor); however, they are not as strong as coordinating conjunctions and they are punctuated differently.

      A conjunctive adverb is also used in a single main clause.
      In this case, a comma (,) is used to separate the conjunctive adverb from the sentence.

      I woke up very late this morning. Nevertheless, I wasn’t late to school.
      She didn’t take a bus to work today. Instead, she drove her car.
      Jack wants a toy car for his birthday. Meanwhile, Jill wants a dollhouse for her birthday.

      They returned home. Likewise, I went home.

      [Quiz 27.1]

      Choose the right conjunctive adverb for the sentence.

      1. Hurry up; ( ) , you will be late for the train.

      2. I studied hard for the exam; ( ), I failed.

      3. Tom is a sportsman; ( ), his brother Tom is athletic.

      4. He didn’t go to college. ( ), he started his own business.

      5. He is not good-looking. ( ) , he is popular among girls.

      Next lesson:
      Indefinite and Definite Articles
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Answers for Quiz 27.1

      1) otherwise
      2) however
      3) likewise
      4) Instead
      5) Nevertheless
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Indefinite and Definite Articles

      The words A, AN and THE are special adjectives called articles.

      Indefinite Articles—a, an

      an—used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound:

      an apple, an elephant, an issue, an orange

      a—used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u):

      a stamp, a desk, a TV, a cup, a book

      Definite Article—the

      Can be used before singular and plural, count and non-count nouns

      1. Indefinite Article (a, an)

      Used before singular nouns that are unspecified:

      a pencil
      an orange
      Used before number collectives and some numbers:

      a dozen
      a gallon

      Used before a singular noun followed by a restrictive modifier:

      A girl who was wearing a yellow hat.

      Used with nouns to form adverbial phrases of quantity, amount, or degree:

      I felt a bit depressed.

      2. Definite Article (the)

      Used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context:

      Please close the door.
      I like the clothes you gave me.

      Used to indicate a noun that is unique:

      Praise the Lord!
      The Columbia River is near here.

      Used to designate a natural phenomenon:

      The nights get shorter in the summer.
      The wind is blowing so hard.

      Used to refer to a time period:

      I was very naïve in the past.
      This song was very popular in the 1980s.

      Used to indicate all the members of a family:

      I invited the Bakers for dinner.
      This medicine was invented by the Smiths.

      [Quiz 28.1]

      Choose the correct article in each sentence.

      1. Did you bring (a, an, the) umbrella?

      2. Are you looking for (a, an, the) shampoo?

      3. I checked (a, an, the) mailbox again.

      4. Can I have (a, an, the) spoon please?

      5. I was born into (a, an, the) poor family.

      6. She will come back in (a, an, the) hour.

      7. Have you been to (a, an, the) Space Needle Tower in Seattle?

      8. I would love to talk to one of (a, an, the) managers.

      9. What (a, an, the) amazing view!

      10. The helicopter landed on (a, an, the) roof of a building.

      Next lesson: Interjections
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Answers for Quiz 27.1

      1) an
      2) the
      3) the
      4) a
      5) a
      6) an
      7) the
      8) the
      9) an
      10) the

      Interjections

      An interjection is a word that expresses some kind of emotion.

      It can be used as filler.
      Interjections do not have a grammatical function in the sentence and are not related to the other parts of the sentence.

      If an interjection is omitted, the sentence still makes sense.
      It can stand alone.

      Ouch! That hurts.
      Well, I need a break.
      Wow! What a beautiful dress!
      When you are expressing a strong emotion, use an exclamation mark (!).

      Interjections do the following:

      1. Express a feeling—wow, gee, oops, darn, geez, oh:

      Oops, I’m sorry. That was my mistake.

      Geez! Do I need to do it again?
      Oh, I didn’t know that.

      2. Say yes or no—yes, no, nope:

      Yes! I will do it!
      No, I am not going to go there.
      Nope. That’s not what I want.

      3. Call attention—yo, hey:

      Yo, will you throw the ball back?
      Hey, I just wanted to talk to you about the previous incident.

      4. Indicate a pause—well, um, hmm:

      Well, what I meant was nothing like that.

      Um, here is our proposal.
      Hmm. You really need to be on a diet.

      [Quiz 29.1]

      What should be B’s expression?

      A: I got a perfect score on the math exam.
      B: (Well. Wow! or Um.)

      Part 2

      What should be C’s expression?

      C: ............ ! (Nope, Hey, or Geez) My computer just broke.

      LAST LESSON FOR BASICS:

      Capitalizations
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Answer for QUIZ 29.1

      Wow!

      Part 2
      Geez

      LAST LESSON

      Capitalization

      Capitalization means using a capital letter (for example, A instead of a).

      The use of capital letters helps readers read your writing without confusion.

      Always capitalize the following:

      The first word in a sentence.

      I grew up in India.
      She left a message on my phone.

      The pronoun I.

      This country is where I dreamed of.

      The first letter of a proper noun (specific name).

      David wants to play soccer with us.
      This letter is from Chang.
      I graduated from the University of New York.

      I like Coca-Cola.
      She likes Godiva chocolates.

      The first letter of months, days, and holidays (but not seasons).

      Today is June 8, 2011.
      Susie’s birthday is this Thursday.
      The shops are closed on Easter.
      This summer is going to be very hot.

      The first letter of nationalities, religions, races of people, and languages.

      We often eat Italian food.
      I want to master many languages, such as Spanish, Korean, Chinese, and Russian.
      There is one Christian church in my town.

      The first letter in a person’s title.

      This is Dr. Simon.
      I got it from Mr. Tom.

      Geographic areas: cities, states, countries, mountains, oceans, rivers, etc.

      My destination is Paris, France.
      Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

      Historical periods.

      The Renaissance began in the 14th century.

      The Qing Dynasty is the last dynasty in China.

      The first letter of each major word in the title of a book, movie, article, etc.

      Tolstoy’s War and Peace is my favorite novel.

      I found the article “How to Write a Good Cover Letter” in this magazine.

      [Quiz 30.1]

      Correctly write each sentence using proper capitalization.

      1 i was born in shanghai, china, but grew up in the united states.

      2. mrs. ohana gave me the bible.
      3. if you walk two more blocks, you will be able to see mt. rocky.

      4. my family will have a summer vacation in hawaii.

      5. I didn’t want to cook tonight, so I just ordered thai food for dinner.

      Answers to Quiz 30.1

      [30.1]
      1)I was born in Shanghai, China, but grew up in the United States.
      2)Mrs. Ohana gave me the Bible.
      3)If you walk two more blocks, you will be able to see Mt. Rocky.
      4)My family will have a summer vacation in Hawaii.
      5)I didn’t want to cook tonight, so I just ordered Thai food for dinner.
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Quote By Open school View Post
      What if I put first go say.... Can you to do something instead of You can do something?

      I have wait your answer/correct Tokyo40
      can you do something?
      I am waiting for correction.

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      Quote By Shilewashile View Post
      can you do something?
      I am waiting for correction.
      When you ask a question:

      Can you do something?

      It's correct.

      But you need to continue....

      Can you do something for me?

      Can you do something about your room? (Clean it)

      Can you do something about it?
      (Fix it)

      Can you do something about his behaviour? ( talk to him)



      " You can do something" is not a question. You are just stating your opinion.

      You can do something about your dirty room.

      You can do something about your extra income.

      You can do something with it.

      You can do something with your skills.

      I answered your question in post # 574.
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Quote By Shilewashile View Post
      I am sorry sir, can you translate the above sentences in Swahili. sometimes their confusing me. Sorry for inconvenience. especially on past perfect tense and past perfect Continuous tense.
      Rather than translating the above sentences, I will try to find information about the grammar structure in Swahili.

      I think once you see the sentence examples, you will understand it better.
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Tenses explanation in Swahili

      Simple Past-li-

      Past Participle-me-

      Future-ta-

      Conditional/Continuing-ki-

      Conditional (would)-nge-



      Kuenda: To go

      Ninaenda: I am going

      Nilienda: I went

      Nimeenda: I have gone

      Nitaenda: I will go

      Nikienda: If I go

      Ningeenda: I would go


      The basic conjugations of verb
      "understand":

      Infinitive

      Kuelewa (to understand)



      PRESENT TENSE

      Ninaelewa (I understand)

      Unaelewa (You understand)

      Anaelewa (He/she understands)

      Tunaelewa (We understand)

      Mnaelewa (You all understand)

      Wanaelewa (They understand)



      SIMPLE PAST TENSE

      Nilielewa (I understood)

      Ulielewa (You understood)

      Alielewa (He/she understood)

      Tulielewa (We understood)

      Mlielewa (You all understood)

      Walielewa (They understood)



      PAST PERFECT TENSE

      Nimeelewa (I have understood)

      Umeelewa (You have understood)

      Ameelewa (He/she has understood)

      Tumeelewa (We have understood)

      Mmeelewa (You all have understood)

      Wameelewa (They have understood)


      FUTURE TENSE

      Nitaelewa (I will understand)

      Utaelewa (You will understand)

      Ataelewa (He/she will understand)

      Tutaelewa (We will understand)

      Mtaelewa (You all will understand)

      Wataelewa (They will understand)
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      Default Re: English learning thread

      I hope the English tense explanations in Swahili will make it easier to understand them.


      (A) Affirmative
      (B) Negative

      (A) ninapiga
      I am beating

      (B) sipigi
      I am not beating

      unapiga
      You are beating

      hupigi
      You are not beating

      anapiga
      He/she is beating

      hapigi
      He/She is not beating

      tunapiga
      We are beating

      hatupigi
      We are not beating

      unapiga
      You (singular are beating

      haupigi
      You (singular) are not beating

      mnapiga
      You (plural) are beating

      hampigi
      You (plural) are not beating

      wanapiga
      They are beating

      hawapigi
      They are not beating

      inapiga
      It is beating

      haipigi
      It is not beating



      Present indefinite

      Affirmative
      Negative

      napiga
      I beat

      sipigi
      I do not beat

      wapiga
      They beat

      hawapigi
      They do not beat

      yapiga
      It beats

      haipigi
      It does not beat


      Future (-ta-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nitapiga
      I shall beat

      sitapiga
      I shall not beat

      watapiga
      They shall beat

      hawatapiga
      They shall not beat

      itapiga
      It shall beat

      haitapiga
      It shall not beat


      Past simple (-li-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nilipiga
      I beat

      sikupiga
      I did not beat

      walipiga
      They beat

      hawakupiga
      They did not beat

      ilipiga
      It beat

      haikupiga
      It did not beat


      Past perfect (-me-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nimepiga
      I have beaten

      sijapiga
      I have not beaten (yet)

      wamepiga
      They have beaten

      hawajapiga
      They have not beaten (yet)

      imepiga
      It has beaten

      haijapiga
      It has not beaten (yet)


      Subjunctive (& polite imperitive)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nipige
      That I may beat

      nisipige
      That I may not beat

      wapige
      That they may beat

      wasipige
      That they may not beat

      ipige
      That it may beat

      isipige
      That it may not beat


      Conditional / if (-ki-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nikipiga
      If I beat

      nisipopiga
      If I do not beat

      wakipiga
      If they beat

      wasipopiga
      If they do not beat

      ikipiga
      If it beats

      isipopiga
      If it does not beat


      Narrative (-ka-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nikapiga
      and I beat

      wakapiga
      and they beat

      ikapigaand
      it beat


      Conditional Future (-nge-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      ningepiga
      If I were to beat

      nisingepiga
      If I were not to beat

      wangepiga
      If they were to beat

      wasingepiga
      If they were not to beat

      ingepiga
      If it were to beat

      isingepiga
      If it were not to beat


      Conditional Past (-ngali-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      ningalipiga
      If I had beaten

      nisingalipiga
      If I had not beaten

      wangalipiga
      If they had beaten

      wasingalipiga
      If they had not beaten

      ingalipiga
      If it had beaten

      isingalipiga
      If it had not beaten


      Past Continuous

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nilikuwa nikipiga
      I was beating

      sikuwa nikipiga
      I was not beating

      walikuwa wakipiga
      They were beating

      hawakuwa wakipiga
      They were not beating

      ilikuwa ikipiga
      It was beating

      haikuwa ikipiga
      It was not beating


      Past Perfect

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nilikuwa nimepiga
      I had beaten

      sikuwa nimepiga
      I had not beaten

      walikuwa wamepiga
      They had beaten

      hawakuwa wamepiga
      They had not beaten

      ilikuwa imepiga
      It had beaten

      haikuwa imepiga
      It had not beaten

      source: kwangu.com
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      Default Re: English learning thread

      Mr Tokyo40 through your effort to offering a time accompaniis with us we will get experience those are amateur in english subject.
      Tokyo40 likes this.

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      Default Re: English learning thread

      Quote By Tokyo40 View Post
      I hope the English tense explanations in Swahili will make it easier to understand them.


      (A) Affirmative
      (B) Negative

      (A) ninapiga
      I am beating

      (B) sipigi
      I am not beating

      unapiga
      You are beating

      hupigi
      You are not beating

      anapiga
      He/she is beating

      hapigi
      He/She is not beating

      tunapiga
      We are beating

      hatupigi
      We are not beating

      unapiga
      You (singular are beating

      haupigi
      You (singular) are not beating

      mnapiga
      You (plural) are beating

      hampigi
      You (plural) are not beating

      wanapiga
      They are beating

      hawapigi
      They are not beating

      inapiga
      It is beating

      haipigi
      It is not beating



      Present indefinite

      Affirmative
      Negative

      napiga
      I beat

      sipigi
      I do not beat

      wapiga
      They beat

      hawapigi
      They do not beat

      yapiga
      It beats

      haipigi
      It does not beat


      Future (-ta-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nitapiga
      I shall beat

      sitapiga
      I shall not beat

      watapiga
      They shall beat

      hawatapiga
      They shall not beat

      itapiga
      It shall beat

      haitapiga
      It shall not beat


      Past simple (-li-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nilipiga
      I beat

      sikupiga
      I did not beat

      walipiga
      They beat

      hawakupiga
      They did not beat

      ilipiga
      It beat

      haikupiga
      It did not beat


      Past perfect (-me-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nimepiga
      I have beaten

      sijapiga
      I have not beaten (yet)

      wamepiga
      They have beaten

      hawajapiga
      They have not beaten (yet)

      imepiga
      It has beaten

      haijapiga
      It has not beaten (yet)


      Subjunctive (& polite imperitive)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nipige
      That I may beat

      nisipige
      That I may not beat

      wapige
      That they may beat

      wasipige
      That they may not beat

      ipige
      That it may beat

      isipige
      That it may not beat


      Conditional / if (-ki-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nikipiga
      If I beat

      nisipopiga
      If I do not beat

      wakipiga
      If they beat

      wasipopiga
      If they do not beat

      ikipiga
      If it beats

      isipopiga
      If it does not beat


      Narrative (-ka-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nikapiga
      and I beat

      wakapiga
      and they beat

      ikapigaand
      it beat


      Conditional Future (-nge-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      ningepiga
      If I were to beat

      nisingepiga
      If I were not to beat

      wangepiga
      If they were to beat

      wasingepiga
      If they were not to beat

      ingepiga
      If it were to beat

      isingepiga
      If it were not to beat


      Conditional Past (-ngali-)

      Affirmative
      Negative

      ningalipiga
      If I had beaten

      nisingalipiga
      If I had not beaten

      wangalipiga
      If they had beaten

      wasingalipiga
      If they had not beaten

      ingalipiga
      If it had beaten

      isingalipiga
      If it had not beaten


      Past Continuous

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nilikuwa nikipiga
      I was beating

      sikuwa nikipiga
      I was not beating

      walikuwa wakipiga
      They were beating

      hawakuwa wakipiga
      They were not beating

      ilikuwa ikipiga
      It was beating

      haikuwa ikipiga
      It was not beating


      Past Perfect

      Affirmative
      Negative

      nilikuwa nimepiga
      I had beaten

      sikuwa nimepiga
      I had not beaten

      walikuwa wamepiga
      They had beaten

      hawakuwa wamepiga
      They had not beaten

      ilikuwa imepiga
      It had beaten

      haikuwa imepiga
      It had not beaten

      source: kwangu.com
      ningepiga
      If I were to beat

      nisingepiga
      If I were not to beat

      wangepiga
      If they were to beat

      wasingepiga
      If they were not to beat


      In that you examples above I have not understand why did you employ the word were in the singular form? I know that WERE is a prular of past tense WAS and employed to indicates that the action done and it involves more than one person.

    19. Tokyo40's Avatar
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      Default Re: English learning thread

      Why sometimes hear people say
      "I were", "he were" instead of "I was", "he was"?

      This is because some verbs have moods and this is the past subjunctive form/mood of the verb "To Be".

      It is used in hypothetical/fantasy scenarios that are unlikely to happen.

      Look at the following examples:

      If I were more confident, I would sing.

      I wish she weren't so late all the time!

      If only I weren't so forgetful!

      I wish I weren't so lazy!

      I wish it were summer.

      He behaves as if he were the owner.


      IF I WERE for hypothetical in the present or future and IF I WAS when talking about something presumed true in the PAST.

      Examples:

      If I were class president, I would represent our class very well for the next four years.

      If I was at the party last night, I don't remember.

      Other scenarios to use:

      When speaking in the future tense, use plural verb:

      Future tense: IF I were a rich man, I would date a lot of women.

      Past tense: When I was a rich man I dated a lot of women.

      Were I to win the lottery, I would buy a private island.

      If I was to win the lottery, I would buy a private island.

      PLEASE NOTE:

      British and American English might use both in some scenarios, though
      IF I WERE is considered formal and more proper.

      That's what confuses new students, I suppose.

      source:english.stackexchange.c om
      Cooly observe, calmly deal with things, hold your position, hide your capabilities, bide your time, accomplish things where possible - Deng Xiaoping

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      Default

      Quote By Tokyo40 View Post
      Tenses explanation in Swahili

      Simple Past-li-

      Past Participle-me-

      Future-ta-

      Conditional/Continuing-ki-

      Conditional (would)-nge-



      Kuenda: To go

      Ninaenda: I am going

      Nilienda: I went

      Nimeenda: I have gone

      Nitaenda: I will go

      Nikienda: If I go

      Ningeenda: I would go


      The basic conjugations of verb
      "understand":

      Infinitive

      Kuelewa (to understand)



      PRESENT TENSE

      Ninaelewa (I understand)

      Unaelewa (You understand)

      Anaelewa (He/she understands)

      Tunaelewa (We understand)

      Mnaelewa (You all understand)

      Wanaelewa (They understand)



      SIMPLE PAST TENSE

      Nilielewa (I understood)

      Ulielewa (You understood)

      Alielewa (He/she understood)

      Tulielewa (We understood)

      Mlielewa (You all understood)

      Walielewa (They understood)



      PAST PERFECT TENSE

      Nimeelewa (I have understood)

      Umeelewa (You have understood)

      Ameelewa (He/she has understood)

      Tumeelewa (We have understood)

      Mmeelewa (You all have understood)

      Wameelewa (They have understood)


      FUTURE TENSE

      Nitaelewa (I will understand)

      Utaelewa (You will understand)

      Ataelewa (He/she will understand)

      Tutaelewa (We will understand)

      Mtaelewa (You all will understand)

      Wataelewa (They will understand)
      I had understood.
      I had written two letters.
      She had cooked.


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